Quiz (Chapter 8, Second
Significance Testing and the
Hybrid Approach to Testing Ho
- (T/F) In all three versions of hypothesis testing (6-step,
7-step, 9-step), Ho is rejected if p< a.
- Significance testing is used _____ (more/less) often than hypothesis
Significance Testing: It's Component Parts
- (T/F) Significance testing involves fewer steps than even the
6-step version of hypothesis testing.
- Which of the following components of hypothesis testing is/are absent
from significance testing?
- choice between a one/two-tailed test
- collection of sample data
- computation of a test statistic
- determination of p
- a reject/fail-to-reject decision
- Can a researcher engage in statistical testing without initially
deciding upon his/her study's statistical focus?
- (T/F) The Ho in significance testing takes the same form
as the null hypothesis in hypothesis testing.
- In significance testing, the one-/two-tailed decision should be made
___ (before/after) the data are examined.
- (T/F) In contrast to the p in hypothesis testing, the p in
significance testing will be small if the data support Ho.
- In significance testing, is p normally reported precisely (e.g.,
p =.02) or in a "less-than" format (e.g., p<.05)?
- (T/F) In significance testing, the researcher does not end up rejecting
or failing-to-reject his/her Ho.
Significance Testing Using "p-less-than" and "p-greater-than" Statements
- (T/F) When results are reported by a researcher who has performed
significance testing, the symbol between p and a decimal number will
always an equal sign (and never < or >).
- Can someone do significance testing if he/she doesn't have a computer
and thus can't determine p precisely?
The Hybrid Approach: The Simple Idea
- (T/F) True significance testing does not involve an a-level
or a reject/fail-to-reject decision about Ho.
- (T/F) True hypothesis testing does not permit the researcher
to report "impressive" results (e.g., p<.001) if he/she has decided,
in Step 3 of the process, to use the .05 level of significance.
- In the hybrid approach, what will the researcher report besides his/her
reject/retain decision concerning Ho?
- If a researcher reports that his/her data revealed a "significant
difference at p<.001" but doesn't say anything at all about using
an a-level, what should you guess happened?
- He/she did significance testing
- He/she did hypothesis testing with a
- He/she used the hybrid approach with a
The Hybrid Approach: Terms for "Near Misses" and "Impressive" Findings
- If a researcher is using the .05 level of significance, which of
these data-based p-levels might very well prompt him/her to report that
the results "indicate a trend toward significance?"
- p = .003
- p = .048
- p = .054
- p = .377
- p = .983
- Answer #17 again 3 times, replacing the final phrase initially with
the term "were marginally significant," next with the term
"approached significance" and finally with the term "were of borderline
- If a researcher sets alpha at .05, which of these data-based p-levels
might very well prompt him/her to report that the results were "highly
significant?" Answer again, now with "clearly significant" as
the last 2 words.
- p = .003
- p = .048
- p = .054
- p = .377
- p = .983
The Hybrid Approach: Reporting Fail-to-Reject Decisions With "p-less-than"
- (T/F) If you see "p < .30," this means that the null hypothesis
was rejected at the .30 level of significance.
- (T/F) A researcher might state that "p< .20" in order to
communicate the finding that "p > .05."
The Hybrid Approach: The "One-Sided" Alternative
- (T/F) If a researcher uses the "one-sided" variation to the hybrid
approach to testing null hypotheses, his/her alternative hypothesis
will automatically be directional in nature.
- In using the "one-sided" variation of the hybrid approach, which
of these two things will researchers do?
- Use terms like "marginally significant" if p is slightly higher
than a, but simply say "significant" if
p < a
- Use terms like "highly significant" if p is way under a,
but simply say "not significant" if p > a
The Hybrid Approach: The 7-Step, 8-Step, and 10-Step Options
- What gets "tacked on at the end" to the 6-, 7-, or 9-step versions
of hypothesis testing to create the 7-, 8-, or 10-step versions of the
hybrid approach to testing null hypotheses?
A Few Warnings
- Which approach--hypothesis testing, significance testing, or the
hybrid approach to testing an Ho--has the ability to bring
forth interesting results even if the null hypothesis is quite silly?
- (T/F) The practical significance of a study can be assessed by looking
to see how small the p-value is.
- (T/F) In the hybrid approach, what's considered a "near miss"
or "highly significant" is highly subjective.
- (T/F) If p turns out equal to 0.0000, this means that the null hypothesis
has been proven to be false.
- Who is ultimately in control of the level of significance associated
with any use of the hypothesis testing procedure or the hybrid approach
to testing null hypotheses:
- The research subjects
- The journal's editorial board
- The researcher
- The scientific community
- The recipient of the research report
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