Quiz (Chapter 5)
Foundations of Inferential Statistics
- (T/F) If a researcher has absolutely no interest beyond the specific
data he/she collects, there is no need whatsoever for any statistical
techniques that are inferential in nature.
- (T/F) The purpose of inferential statistics is to make scientific
guesses as to the value of the unknown sample statistic on the basis
of the value of the known population parameter.
- Statistical inference involves _____ . (a) proving things (b) making
- Suppose 4 books are pulled off a library shelf containing 25 books,
with those 4 books considered to be the sample. Would the population
in this example be a "tangible" population or an "abstract" population?
The Concepts of Statistics and Parameter
- (T/F) The statistical focus in section "a" of Figure 5.1
is different from the statistical focus in section "b."
- What symbol is used to denote the population's mean? The population's
- The Greek letter ___ denotes Pearson's product-moment correlation
in the population.
- (T/F) In inferential statistics, the sample statistic & the population
parameter MUST deal with the same concept (e.g., if the statistic is
the mean, then the parameter must be the mean).
- (a) N is to s as n is to __. (b) m
is to __ as r is to r.
Types of Samples
- If every object in the population has an equal chance of being selected
for inclusion in the sample, then the word ______ describes the way
in which the sample was selected.
- (T/F) The notion of a "sampling frame" comes into play only when
the population is tangible.
- For each of these samples, indicate whether it is a probability sample
or a nonprobability sample:
- convenience sample
- purposive sample
- quota sample
- simple random sample
- stratified random sample
- snowball sample
- cluster sample
- systematic sample
- If a stratified random sample of 100 people is extracted from a population
that contains 60% females and 40% males, how many males will there be
in the sample?
- If an instructor collected data from everyone enrolled in his/her
class, and if those data were then treated as if they had come from
a sample, what would be the official name for this kind of sample?
- On the surface (but only on the surface), a quota sample looks
somewhat like a __________ sample.
The Problems of Low Response Rate, Refusals to Participate, and Attrition
- What does the term "response rate" mean? Should it be high
- (T/F) If a mailed questionnaire is sent to a random
sample of individuals in a population, the problem of low response rate
cannot logical develop.
- (T/F) In studies involving a mailed questionnaire, researchers can't
do anything to bring about a high response rate and must "live with"
whatever response rate they get.
- The possible problem of a _________ can be investigated by comparing
(a) responses from a sample of folks who initially do not respond
with (b) responses from those folks who initially did respond.
- Some researchers use the word ________ to mean the same thing as
- In Excerpt 5.24, the attrition rate at the 3-month assessment was
A Few Warnings
- The first warning advises you to be on guard when reading research
articles because there may be a mismatch between _____ and the destination
of the inferential claims.
- If a researcher has a population of 1,000 individuals, which of these
samples would be better than the other?
- A probability sample of 50 individuals
- A nonprobability sample of 300 individuals
- Suppose a researcher shuffles well a deck of playing cards and then
blindly gives a card to each member of a group of 50 individuals.
Also suppose that the researcher then collects data from those folks
who received a diamond (but not from those who received a club, a heart,
or a spade). In the research report, what should the researcher
say about selecting the sample?
- That a random sample of the 50 individuals was taken
- That a well-shuffled deck of cards was used to select the random
sample of the 50 individuals
- In the next-to-last sentence in the top paragraph on page 122, the
claim is made that "you will encounter technical write-ups in which
the researchers emphasize ____ to the near exclusion of a clear explanation
their data came from or to whom the results apply."
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