Quiz (Chapter 18)
Statistical Tests on Ranks (Nonparametric
- The simplest kind of quantitative data involve _____.
- Test procedures such as the median test and the Mann-Whitney U test
are called ______ tests.
Obtaining Ranked Data
- In how many different ways can a researcher "produce" data that take
the form of ranks?
- In Excerpt 18.6, the 1-to-10 numerical ranks assigned to each participant's
sorted pictures indicated a _______ ordering of the pictures.
- least preferred to most preferred
- most preferred to least preferred
Reason for Converting Scores on a Continuous Variable into Ranks
- Test procedures designed for use with ranks involve ____ (fewer/more)
assumptions than procedures designed for use with interval- or ratio-level
- Unequal or small sample sizes prompt many researchers to ____ (use/not
use) tests based on ranks.
- (T/F) The total scores people earn on a Likert-type attitude inventory
are probably only ordinal in nature.
The Median Test
- The median test is used to compare 2 or more groups that are _____
- In comparing 3 groups with a median test, how many medians would
appear in the test's null hypothesis?
- In comparing 3 groups with a median test, how many medians need to
be computed from the sample data?
- The calculated value in a median test is referred to as ___.
- (T/F) Excerpt 18.14 shows that a median test's p-value gets smaller
as the calculated value gets larger.
The Mann-Whitney U Test
- The Mann-Whitney U test test is used to compare 2 groups that are
- Of the two test procedures referred to in Excerpts 18.1 and 18.2,
which one is more powerful?
- The task of interpreting a significant result from a Mann-Whitney
U test is _____ (easy/difficult).
- (T/F) If the U test leads to a rejection of Ho,
the populations might differ in their means, medians, or modes.
- Excerpt 18.15 shows that there is a ______ (direct/indirect) relationship
between the size of U, the calculated value, and the size of p.
The Kruskal-Wallis H Test
- The Kruskal-Wallis H test is used to compare 3 or more groups that
are _____ (independent/correlated).
- (T/F) In both the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests, a "sum of
ranks" is computed for each sample.
- (T/F) In Excerpt 18.18, the number immediately to the right of each H in the final sentence
would have been a ___ (rather than a 2) if there had been 5 music conditions in the study.
- In a Kruskal-Wallis test, Ho is rejected if the calculated
H is ____ (smaller/larger) than the critical value.
- In Excerpt 18.20, how many Mann-Whitney U tests were
The Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed-Ranks Test
- Wilcoxon's test is used to compare __ (how many?) sets of scores
that are _____ (independent/correlated).
- The calculated value in a Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test
is referred to by what capital letter?
- In Excerpt 18.21, the 1st sentence indicates that data from the control group
were gathered at 3 points in time: pretest-1, pretest-2, and posttest. The
2nd of these points of data collection is referred to as ____ later in the excerpt.
- In a Wilcoxon test, Ho is rejected if the calculated value
is ____ (smaller/larger) than the critical value.
- A significant T suggests that the 2 populations differ in what way,
assuming they have the same shape?
Friedman's Two-Way Analysis of Variance of Ranks
- Friedman's test is used to compare __ (how many?) sets of scores
that are _____ (independent/correlated).
- Which parametric ANOVA is analogous to the Friedman two-way analysis
of variance of ranks?
- If each of 3 people tastes 3 soft drinks and then ranks them, what
should you expect the "sum of ranks" to be for any of the beverages
if the null hypothesis (that the 3 beverages are equally good) is true?
- In Excerpt 18.22, which number in the excerpt is the Friedman test's
- If the Friedman test yields a significant result, what test is likely
to be used in a post hoc investigation?
Large-Sample Versions of the Tests on Ranks; Ties
- (T/F) A test on ranks made via a z-test (due to large samples) can
be thought of as a "normal curve test."
- The _____ test can be thought of as the "small-sample" version of
the median test.
- (T/F) Excerpt 18.24 shows that the large-sample approximation to a Kruskal-Wallis
test has a calculated value represented by z.
- The regular median test is inherently a ______ (small-sample/large-sample)
- (T/F) When ties occur in tests on ranks, the only thing a researcher
can do is discard the tied scores.
The Relative Power of Nonparametric Tests
- (T/F) Under certain circumstance, nonparametric tests have more power
than their parametric counterparts.
- Applied researchers should explain why they used the specific tests
selected to analyze their data, and the issue of _____ _____ ought to
be included in such explanations.
A Few Final Comments
- Nonparametric tests ___ (are/are not) based on the assumption that
the data come from random samples.
- The last sentence in the 2nd paragraph on p. 496 urges you not to
use _____ as the criterion for judging the worth of empirical studies.
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