Quiz (Chapter 17)
Inferences on Percentages, Proportions,
and Frequencies
Introduction
 If concerned with group membership, researchers compute summaries
such as frequencies, _____, or _____.
 What level of measurement is contained in the data if a researcher
measures people in terms of gender?
The Sign Test, the Binomial Test, and Fisher's Exact Test
 If, in Excerpt 17.2, a reduced caesarean section rate had been observed
in 12 of the intervention hospitals (rather than 13 of them), the
Ho most likely _____ (would/wouldn't)
have been rejected.
 Can a sign test be used with 1 group measured twice? With 2 matched
groups? With 2 independent groups?
 The binomial test is exactly like a sign test, except the _____ (former/latter)
has a more "flexible" Ho.
 Answer the 3 parts of Question 4, but this time think of the binomial
test rather than the sign test.
 How many comparison groups are involved in a Fisher's Exact Test?
Must these groups be matched?
 The null hypothesis in a Fisher's Exact Test says that the population
proportions are ____ (equal/equal to .50).
 In Excerpt 17.4, the sample data would have been most "in line with" the
null hypothesis if ___ of the children from professional families had shown
low VIQ scores.
ChiSquare Tests: An Introduction
 (T/F) Most chisquare tests (but not all of them) deal with nominal
data.
 What Greek symbol is used to indicate that a chisquare tests has
been conducted?
 (T/F) If a chisquare test is used with frequencies, it most likely
is Pearson's approximation to chi square.
Three Main Types of ChiSquare Tests
 (T/F) A 4category 1sample c2
test could yield a "p<.05" result if 25% of the sample falls in each
category.
 If 30 men in the male sample exercise but 10 don't, how many of the
60 women in the female sample would have to exercise in order for the
sample data to be in full agreement with the chisquare null hypothesis?
 In Excerpt 17.10, the df of the chi square test ___ (was/wasn't)
influenced by how many of the respondents in each group were or were not interested
in serving children with disabilities.
 (T/F) When chi square is used with a contingency table, the researcher
must specify the values of P in Ho.
 In Excerpt 17.11, the sample data would have been ____ (more/less) "in line with"
the null hypothesis if there had been 8 girls and 13 boys in the music group.
 (T/F) In Excerpt 17.12, the null hypothesis stated that each of
the gender group populations had onethird of its members in each of
the three drinking categories.
Chi Square as a Correlational Probe
 When chisquare is used in a correlational sense, researchers sometimes
call it a "chi square test of ____."
 For 2x2 contingency tables, chisquare can be converted into a correlational
index called ____.
 For contingency tables with 3 or more rows/columns, c2
can be converted into what correlational index?
 In Excerpt 17.17, if the calculated value for chi square had turned out larger than 70.94, the numerical value of phi
would have been ____ (larger/smaller) than .57.
Issues Related to ChiSquare Tests
 With chisquare tests, the df are determined by ____. (a) the sample
size (b) the number of categories
 If a researcher used chisquare to see if a relationship exists between
the political affiliation of bumper stickers (Republican vs. Democrat)
and driver's age (<30, 3050, >50), the df would be equal to __.
 If a chisquare test comparing the % of men and women getting one
or more traffic tickets in the past year leads to a significant result,
a post hoc test ____ (would/would not) be needed to clarify the results.
 Chisquare should not be used if the _____ (expected/observed) frequencies
are too small.
 Researchers sometimes use the "Yates correction" when their chi square's
df is ___ (1/more than 1).
McNemar's Chi Square
 McNemar's chi square is appropriate when the 2 samples of data are
______ (independent/correlated).
 McNemar's chisquare test is very much like a
 sign test
 paired ttest
 twoway ANOVA
 hierarchical multiple regression
 McNemar's chisquare test ____ (can/can't) be used with matched
groups.
The Cochran Q Test
 Cochran's test is used when there are ___ (2/more than 2) _____ (independent/correlated)
samples giving data on a dependent variable having ___ (2/more than
2) categories.
 If Cochran's test leads to a rejection of the omnibus null hypothesis,
what test will probably be used to make pairwise post hoc comparisons?
The Use of zTests When Dealing With Proportions
 Researchers sometimes use ztests rather than sign, binomial, and
McNemar tests when:
 underlying assumptions are not met
 the null hypothesis can't be rejected
 the sample sizes are big
A Few Final Thoughts
 (T/F) Statistical tests that focus on frequencies, percentages, or proportions
have a builtin feature that prevents Type I errors from occurring.
 The Bonferroni technique ___ (can/can't) be used with tests on frequencies,
percentages, and proportions.
 To judge whether a chisquarebased effect is small, medium, or
large, researchers often convert their chisquare calculated value
into a ___ or ___ correlation.
 In Excerpt 17.29, the researchers conducted a(n) _______ (a priori/post hoc)
power analysis.
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