Quiz (Chapter 12)

Post Hoc and Planned Comparisons

Introduction
1. With 3 comparison groups, Ho, if false, might be false because m1 = m2 while m3 is equal to something else.
2.  True False
3. Researchers use planned comparisons more often than they do post hoc comparisons.
4.  True False
Post Hoc Comparisons: Definition and Purpose
1. There is confusion among researchers as to what is or is not a post hoc test.
2.  True False
3. What's the statistical focus of a post hoc test that's conducted in conjunction with a one-way ANOVA?
4.  Means Standard deviations Variances Correlations Reiability coefficients
5. Post hoc tests are used when the Ho of a one-way analysis of variance is not rejected.
6.  True False
Post Hoc Comparisons: Terminology
1. Which of the following terms is/are synonymous with the term "post hoc test"?
2.  Follow-up test Multiple comparison test A posteriori test All of the above
3. Within the post hoc tests, what's a one-word synonym for "comparison"?
4.  Check-out Contrast Examination Investigation Pairing
5. The F that comes from a one-way ANOVA can be referred to as the "omnibus F-test."
6.  True False
7. If all possible "pairwise" comparisons had been conducted in Excerpt 11.9 (Chapter 11, p. 268), how many comparisons would have been made?
8.  2 3 4 6 12
9. Suppose we have 3 groups: (a) undergraduates, (b) graduate students in an M.S. program, and (c) graduate students in a Ph.D. program.  If the 2 groups of graduate students are combined and compared against the undergrads, this would be a(n) _____ comparison.
10.  illegal nonpairwise tilted triangular unbalanced
Post Hoc Comparisons: Test Procedures Frequently Used
1. Who invented the multiple comparison test that goes by the name "HSD"?
2.  Duncan Fisher Newman & Keuls Scheffe Tukey
3. Who invented the multiple comparison test that's called the "New Multiple Range Test"?
4.  Duncan Fisher Newman & Keuls Scheffe Tukey
5. Of the 5 tests used most often to do post hoc comparisons, the most "liberal" one is _______ and the most "conservative" one is ______ .
6.  Duncan's; Tukey's Fisher's; Tukey's Tukey's; Scheffe's Scheffe's; Duncan's Fisher's; Scheffe's
7. Which type of test protects most against Type I errors?
8.  A conservative test A liberal test
9. What is the name of the multiple comparison test that compares experimental groups versus the control group (but doesn't compare experimental groups against each other)?
10.  Dunnett Gunnett Lunnett Sunnett Tunnett
Post Hoc Comparisons: The Null Hypothesis
1. A separate Ho exists for every comparison that's set up in a post hoc investigation.
2.  True False
3. In Excerpt 12.18, there were __ post hoc null hypotheses.
4.  2 3 4 6 16
Post Hoc Comparisons: Presentation of Results
1. Which of Tukey's post hoc procedures can be used to make pairwise comparisons among means?
2.  Just the Tukey HSD procedure Just the Tukey a procedure Just the Tukey B procedure Any of the Tukey procedures (HSD, a, or b) None of the Tukey procedures
3. In Excerpt 12.14, how many pairwise Tukey tests are being summarized?
4.  3 5 9 58 It is impossible to determined based on the information provided
5. Suppose a Tukey test is used to make all pairwise comparisons among 4 means. Suppose further that these tests indicate that (a) the largest mean is signifficantly larger than the second-largest mean, (b) each of those means is significantly different from the other 2 means, and (c) the 2 smallest means are not significantly different from each other. If the "reporting scheme" used in Table 4 of Excerpt 12.18 is used to summarize these results, how many different letters would appear next to the sample means?
6.  1 2 3 4 It is impossible to determined based on the information provided
7. If we let "1" represent the young group, "2" represent the middle group, and "3" represent the older group, which of the following statements accurately summarizes the results of the post hoc comparisons made in the last sentence of Excerpt 12.14?
8.  2< 3 = 2 1 < 3 < 2 1 < 2 < 3 2 < 1 < 3 3 < 2 = 1
Post Hoc Comparisons: The Bonferroni Procedure as a Post Hoc Technique
1. What a would be needed if the Bonferroni technique were to be used by a ".05" researcher who wants to conduct a post hoc analysis wherein all possible pairwise comparisons are made among 5 groups?
2.  .001 .005 .01 .025 .25
Planned Comparisons
1. Planned comparisons are turned to by the researcher if the ANOVA F turns out p > .05.
2.  True False
3. Since test procedures such as Tukey's were invented for use as post hoc investigations, they can't be used in situations where the researcher wants to conduct planned comparisons.
4.  True False
5. A planned contrast is sometimes referred to as a(n) ________ contrast.
6.  a priori concentrated focused peripheral strategic
7. Researchers ought to use planned comparisons more often than they do.
8.  True False
9. The planned comparisons set up by most researchers are nonpairwise (rather than pairwise) in nature.
10.  True False
11. In any given study having three or more comparison groups, the researcher can set up some planned comparisons that are nonpairwise in nature along with other planned comparisons that are pairwise in nature?
12.  True False
Comments
1. If a planned comparison is set up to contrast one group's mean against the average of two other groups (that have been lumped together), what will the F-test's first df number be?
2.  .5 .67 1 2 3
3. The term "orthogonal" means "independent."
4.  True False
5. The equal variance assumption is important when a researcher conducts an omnibus F-test but it is not important if he/she performs a planned or post hoc investigation.
6.  True False
7. If three samples have means of 12.15, 18.50, and 21.75, the index d would turn out to be smallest for a comparison of which 2 means?
8.  12.15 and 18.50 12.15 and 21.75 18.50 and 21.75 It is impossible to determine
9. All of the test procedures developed for doing post hoc and planned comparisons have a built-in "control mechanism" that prevents the results from being statistically significant if there's no practical significance.
10.  True False
11. Look again at Excerpt 12.26. The value of d can be thought of as "large" because it is larger than ___ .
12.  .01 .05 .50 .80

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