Quiz (Chapter 11)

Tests on Three or More Means Using a One-Way ANOVA

Introduction
1. What is the acronym for the phrase "analysis of variance"?
2.  AV AOV ANVA ANOVA
3. What is the "statistical focus" of a one-way analysis of variance?
4.  Means Variances Correlations
5. A one-way analysis of variance can be used to compare ___ or more groups.
6.  2 3
7. ANOVA is the most frequently used inferential technique for comparing three or more means.
8.  True False
The Purpose of a One-Way ANOVA
1. A one-way ANOVA's inference goes from the ____ means to the ____ means.
2.  sample; population population; sample
3. If a one-way ANOVA involves 4 samples, each drawn from a different population, how many inferences will the researcher be making on the basis of the one-way ANOVA?
4.  1 2 3 4 It depends on how large the samples are
The Distinction Between a One-Way ANOVA and Other Kinds of ANOVA
1. These three terms are synonymous: "one-way ANOVA,"  "one-factor ANOVA," and "simple ANOVA."
2.  True False
3. In discussing ANOVA studies, what term means the same thing as "independent variable?"
4.  Element Factor Independent samples Dependent variable Control variable
5. A one-way ANOVA involves how many of these: (a) 3 independent variables (b) 2 dependent variables (c) correlated samples
6.  None of them 1 of them 2 of them All 3 of them
7. In Excerpt 11.9, what was the dependent variable?
8.  Diagnostic group Level of anxiety as measured by the SCAS total score
9. If research participants perform a task 3 times (first with no distraction, then with a few distractions, and finally with many distractions), the independent variable would be _______ in nature.
10.  between-subjects within-subjects
The One-Way ANOVA's Null and Alternative Hypothesis
1. A one-way ANOVA's null hypothesis stipulates that ____ of the population means are equal.
2.  at least two all
3. How many means would be in the null hypothesis associated with Excerpt 11.7, and would those means be sample means or population means?
4.  1; sample mean 3; sample means 1; population mean 3; population means
5. A one-way ANOVA's alternative hypothesis says that ____ of the population means are different.
6.  at least two all
Presentation of Results
1. In ANOVA summary tables, what do the abbreviations "SS" stand for?
2.  Standard score Skewed sample Statistical sequence Sum of squares
3. If an ANOVA summary table is set up for Excerpt 11.2, the "between group" df will equal __.
4.  2 3 4 120 It's impossible to know based on the information provided
5. If the df for "total" is equal to 29, how many research participants are involved in the analysis?
6.  28 29 30 31 It's impossible to know based on the information provided
7. What term other than "Error" is often used to label the middle row of a one-way ANOVA summary table?
8.  Between groups Within groups Total
9. If the df for Error = 12 while the SS for Error = 30, the MS for Error would be equal to __.
10.  .40 2.50 42 360 It's impossible to know based on the information provided
11. What letter is used to denote the calculated and critical values in an analysis of variance?
12.  C F M S T
13. Based on the information in Excerpt 11.19, it is possible that the 3 samples were the same size.
14.  True False
15. How many null hypotheses were tested in Excerpt 11.12?
16.  3 5 6 72 73
17. In Excerpt 11.10, the Bonferroni adjustment technique was not applied. If it had been applied, how many of the computed F-values would have been statistically significant?
18.  0 1 2 It is impossible to determine
Assumptions of a One-Way ANOVA
1. The 4 underlying assumptions of a one-way ANOVA are: randomness, independence, normality, and _______.
2.  equal sample variances equal population variances equal sample sizes equal population sizes
3. Using sumbols, show what the null hypothesis is when Levene's or Hartley's test is applied to data of a study involving 3 samples.
4.  Ho: m = 3 Ho: m1 = m2 = m3 Ho: s12 = s22 = s32 Ho: s12 = s22 = s32
5. When testing an assumption, the researcher usually hopes to ____ the assumption's Ho.
6.  reject fail to reject
7. The one-way ANOVA F-test is robust to violations of the equal-variance assumption if the ns are equal.
8.  True False
9. If the normality or equal-variance assumption is found to be untenable, what option(s) is/are available to the researcher?
10.  Eliminate outliers Transform the data Use a different test procedure All of the above
Statistical Significance Versus Practical Significance
1. Most researchers _____ attempt to see if their results have practical significance once their ANOVA demonstrates that they are the "owners" of statistical significance.
2.  do don't
3. What will a power analysis "tell" a researcher if the power analysis is done before any data are collected?
4.  How the null hypothesis should be set up How the alternative hypothesis should be set up What level of significance to use How large the samples should be
Tips for Deciphering/Critiquing Research Results Based on One-Way ANOVAs
1. In a one-way ANOVA: each participant supplies _ score(s), and dftotal + _ = the total number of research participants.
2.  1; 1 1; 2 2; 1 2; 2
3. If the F is significant in a one-way ANOVA comparing three groups, the researcher can legitimately infer (based on the sample evidence) that m1, m2, and m3 are all different.
4.  True False
5. (T/F) If the F is not significant in a one-way ANOVA comparing three groups, the researcher can legitimately infer (based on the sample evidence) that m1, m2, and m3 are all the same.
6.  True False
Questions that are Supposed to be More Difficult
1. If a one-way ANOVA compares 3 groups (with each n=10), and if SSerror = 54 while SStotal = 74, what will F be?
2.  2 5 10 27 29
3. Excerpt 11.22 does not contain an ANOVA summary table. If such a table had been included, the number value for SStotal would have been equal to ____ .
4.  1.15 4.49 21.60 26.19
5. Including the p-value, what's the maximum number of numbers that can appear in a one-way ANOVA summary table?
6.  8 9 10 11
7. In the study that provided Excerpt 11.22, what was the value of n (assuming that the comparison groups were the same size)?
8.  4 5 10 45 46
9. In Excerpt 11.23, what would have happened to the needed sample size if the researchers had set their desired power equal to 80% (rather than 95%)?
10.  The required sample size would have been larger than 50. The required sample size would have been smaller than 50. The required sample size would have stayed equal to 50.
11. In Excerpt 11.13, what happened to the size of each ANOVA's calculated value as the Bonferroni adjustment technique was applied?
12.  The calculated F value got larger The calculated F value got smaller The calculated F value neither increased nor decreased in size
13. In Excerpt 11.13, what happened to the size of each ANOVA's critical value as the Bonferroni adjustment technique was applied?
14.  The critical F value got larger The critical F value got smaller The critical F value neither increased nor decreased in size
15. These two symbolic statements say the same thing: (1) Ha: sm2   0; (2) Ha: sm2 > 0
16.  True False