OUTLINE FOR CHAPTER
8 (Part 2)
Significance Testing and the
Hybrid Approach to Testing
 Significance Testing
 The Component Parts of Significance Testing:
 State a null hypothesis
 Make a onetailed versus twotailed decision
 Compute a calculated value
 Determine the databased pvalue
 Assessing the likelihood that Ho is true
 Significance Testing Using "plessthan" and "pgreaterthan"
Statements:
 If the precise pvalue can't be computed, the researcher might
say something like "p<.001" or "p > .15" (but the number
to the right of "<" or ">" isn't the alevel,
because there's no a in significance
testing
 Statements in which p is "bracketed" (e.g., ".01 < p <
.05" ) might also come from statistical testing
 A Popular Hybrid: Significance Testing With an aLevel
 The simple idea of the "hybrid" approach that combines parts hypothesis
testing and significance testing
 "Marginal significance" and other terms for "near misses"
 The notion of "highly significant"
 Reporting failtoreject decisions with "plessthan" statements
 The "onesided" alternative to the hybrid approach
 The 7, 8, and 10step versions of the hybrid approach
 A Few Warnings
 The importance of Ho
 The meaning of the databased probability
 The subjective interpretation of p
 The meaning of "p = .0000"
 "Resetting" the level of significance
