OUTLINE FOR CHAPTER
2
Descriptive Statistics: The Univarite
Case
 Picture Techniques for Summarizing Data
 Frequency distributions:
 Simple (ungrouped) frequency distribution
 Grouped frequency distribution
 Cumulative frequency distribution
 Stemandleaf displays
 Histograms and bar graphs: How they are alike and how they are
different
 Frequency distributions in words
 Distributional Shape
 The normal distribution
 The concept of "skewness" (Positively skewed; Negatively skewed)
 The concept of "modality" (Unimodal; Bimodal; Trimodal; etc.)
 Rectangular (i.e, uniform) distributions
 The concept of "kurtosis" (Leptokurtic; Mesokurtic; Platykurtic)
 Measures of Central Tendency
 The concept of "average." (It's synonymous with "measure of central
tendency")
 The three most popular measures of central tendency: mode,
median, mean
 The position of the mode, mean, and mean in skewed distributions
 Other measures of central tendency
 Measures of Variability
 Synonyms for variability: dispersion, spread, or heterogeneity
 The range, the SIQR, and the boxandwhisker plot
 The standard deviation and the variance
 Other measures of variability
 Standard Scores
 Focus and purpose
 Two popular types used in research: zscores and Tscores
 Cautions
 Two different means of the terms "skewed" and "quartile"
 The proper synonym for "average"
 Outliers
 A Summary of the Abbreviations & Symbols Associated
With This Chapter
Cf 
f 
M 
N 
n 
Q 
Q1 
Q2 
Q3 
R 
s 
s2 
SD 
T 

X 
z 
m 
s 
s2 




