Quiz (Chapter 8, Second
Part)
Significance Testing and the
Hybrid Approach to Testing Ho
Introduction
 (T/F) In all three versions of hypothesis testing (6step,
7step, 9step), Ho is rejected if p< a.
 Significance testing is used _____ (more/less) often than hypothesis
testing.
Significance Testing: It's Component Parts
 (T/F) Significance testing involves fewer steps than even the
6step version of hypothesis testing.
 Which of the following components of hypothesis testing is/are absent
from significance testing?
 Ho
 Ha
 choice between a one/twotailed test
 a
 collection of sample data
 computation of a test statistic
 determination of p
 a reject/failtoreject decision
 Can a researcher engage in statistical testing without initially
deciding upon his/her study's statistical focus?
 (T/F) The Ho in significance testing takes the same form
as the null hypothesis in hypothesis testing.
 In significance testing, the one/twotailed decision should be made
___ (before/after) the data are examined.
 (T/F) In contrast to the p in hypothesis testing, the p in
significance testing will be small if the data support Ho.
 In significance testing, is p normally reported precisely (e.g.,
p =.02) or in a "lessthan" format (e.g., p<.05)?
 (T/F) In significance testing, the researcher does not end up rejecting
or failingtoreject his/her Ho.
Significance Testing Using "plessthan" and "pgreaterthan" Statements
 (T/F) When results are reported by a researcher who has performed
significance testing, the symbol between p and a decimal number will
always an equal sign (and never < or >).
 Can someone do significance testing if he/she doesn't have a computer
and thus can't determine p precisely?
The Hybrid Approach: The Simple Idea
 (T/F) True significance testing does not involve an alevel
or a reject/failtoreject decision about Ho.
 (T/F) True hypothesis testing does not permit the researcher
to report "impressive" results (e.g., p<.001) if he/she has decided,
in Step 3 of the process, to use the .05 level of significance.
 In the hybrid approach, what will the researcher report besides his/her
reject/retain decision concerning Ho?
 If a researcher reports that his/her data revealed a "significant
difference at p<.001" but doesn't say anything at all about using
an alevel, what should you guess happened?
 He/she did significance testing
 He/she did hypothesis testing with a
= .001
 He/she used the hybrid approach with a
= .05
The Hybrid Approach: Terms for "Near Misses" and "Impressive" Findings
 If a researcher is using the .05 level of significance, which of
these databased plevels might very well prompt him/her to report that
the results "indicate a trend toward significance?"
 p = .003
 p = .048
 p = .054
 p = .377
 p = .983
 Answer #17 again 3 times, replacing the final phrase initially with
the term "were marginally significant," next with the term
"approached significance" and finally with the term "were of borderline
significance."
 If a researcher sets alpha at .05, which of these databased plevels
might very well prompt him/her to report that the results were "highly
significant?" Answer again, now with "clearly significant" as
the last 2 words.
 p = .003
 p = .048
 p = .054
 p = .377
 p = .983
The Hybrid Approach: Reporting FailtoReject Decisions With "plessthan"
Statements
 (T/F) If you see "p < .30," this means that the null hypothesis
was rejected at the .30 level of significance.
 (T/F) A researcher might state that "p< .20" in order to
communicate the finding that "p > .05."
The Hybrid Approach: The "OneSided" Alternative
 (T/F) If a researcher uses the "onesided" variation to the hybrid
approach to testing null hypotheses, his/her alternative hypothesis
will automatically be directional in nature.
 In using the "onesided" variation of the hybrid approach, which
of these two things will researchers do?
 Use terms like "marginally significant" if p is slightly higher
than a, but simply say "significant" if
p < a
 Use terms like "highly significant" if p is way under a,
but simply say "not significant" if p > a
The Hybrid Approach: The 7Step, 8Step, and 10Step Options
 What gets "tacked on at the end" to the 6, 7, or 9step versions
of hypothesis testing to create the 7, 8, or 10step versions of the
hybrid approach to testing null hypotheses?
A Few Warnings
 Which approachhypothesis testing, significance testing, or the
hybrid approach to testing an Hohas the ability to bring
forth interesting results even if the null hypothesis is quite silly?
 (T/F) The practical significance of a study can be assessed by looking
to see how small the pvalue is.
 (T/F) In the hybrid approach, what's considered a "near miss"
or "highly significant" is highly subjective.
 (T/F) If p turns out equal to 0.0000, this means that the null hypothesis
has been proven to be false.
 Who is ultimately in control of the level of significance associated
with any use of the hypothesis testing procedure or the hybrid approach
to testing null hypotheses:
 The research subjects
 The journal's editorial board
 The researcher
 The scientific community
 The recipient of the research report
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