Quiz (Chapter 8, Second Part)


Significance Testing and the Hybrid Approach to Testing Ho

Introduction
  1. In all three versions of hypothesis testing (6-step, 7-step, 9-step), Ho is rejected if p< a.
  2. True
    False
  3. Significance testing is used _______ than hypothesis testing.
  4. more often
    less often
Significance Testing: It's Component Parts
  1. Significance testing involves fewer steps than even the 6-step version of hypothesis testing.
  2. True
    False
  3. How many of the following 8 components of hypothesis testing is/are absent from significance testing? (a) Ho (b) Ha (c) choice between a one/two-tailed test (d) a (e) collection of sample data (f) computation of a test statistic (g) determination of p (h) a reject/fail-to-reject decision
  4. 0
    1
    2
    3
    4
  5. Can a researcher engage in statistical testing without initially deciding upon his/her study's statistical focus?
  6. Yes
    No
  7. The Ho in significance testing takes the same form as the null hypothesis in hypothesis testing.
  8. True
    False
  9. In significance testing, the one-/two-tailed decision should be made ____ the data are examined.
  10. before
    after
  11. In contrast to the p in hypothesis testing, the p in significance testing will be small if the data support Ho.
  12. True
    False
  13. In significance testing, how is p normally reported?
  14. Precisely (e.g., p =.02)
    In a "less-than" format (e.g., p<.05)
  15. In significance testing, the researcher does not end up rejecting or failing-to-reject his/her Ho.
  16. True
    False
Significance Testing Using "p-less-than" and "p-greater-than" Statements
  1. When results are reported by a researcher who has performed significance testing, the symbol between p and a decimal number will always an equal sign (and never < or >).
  2. True
    False
  3. Can someone do significance testing if he/she doesn't have a computer and thus can't determine p precisely?
  4. Yes
    No
The Hybrid Approach: The Simple Idea
  1. True significance testing does not involve an a-level or a reject/fail-to-reject decision about Ho.
  2. True
    False
  3. The six-step hypothesis testing procedure does not permit the researcher to report "impressive" results (e.g., p<.001) if he/she has decided, in Step 3 of the process, to use the .05 level of significance.
  4. True
    False
  5. In the hybrid approach, what will the researcher report besides his/her reject/retain decision concerning Ho?
  6. The p-value
    The critical value
  7. If a researcher reports that his/her data revealed a "significant differenceat p<.001" but doesn't say anything at all about using an a-level, what should you guess happened?
  8. He/she did significance testing
    He/she did hypothesis testing with a = .001
    He/she used the hybrid approach with a = .05
The Hybrid Approach: Terms for "Near Misses" and "Impressive" Findings
  1. If a researcher is using the .05 level of significance, which of these data-based p-levels might very well prompt him/her to report that the results "indicate a trend toward significance?"
  2. p = .003
    p = .048
    p = .054
    p = .377
    p = .983
  3. The 3 terms "marginally significant," "approached significance" and "of borderline significance" all designate the same kind of result.
  4. True
    False
  5. If a researcher sets alpha at .05, which of these data-based p-levels mightvery well prompt him/her to report that the results were "highly significant?
  6. p = .003
    p = .048
    p = .054
    p = .377
    p = .983
The Hybrid Approach: Reporting Fail-to-Reject Decisions With "p-less-than" Statements
  1. If you see "p < .30," this means that the null hypothesis was rejected at the .30 level of significance.
  2. True
    False
  3. A researcher might state that "p< .20" in order to communicate the finding that "p > .05."
  4. True
    False
The Hybrid Approach: The "One-Sided" Alternative
  1. If a researcher uses the "one-sided" variation to the hybrid approach to testing null hypotheses, his/her  alternative hypothesis will automatically be directional in nature.
  2. True
    False
  3. In using the "one-sided" variation of the hybrid approach, which of these two things will researchers do?
  4. Use terms like "marginally significant" if p is slightly higher than a, but simply say "significant" if p < a
    Use terms like "highly significant" if p is way under a, but simply say "not significant" if p > a
The Hybrid Approach: The 7-Step, 8-Step, and 10-Step Options
  1. What gets "tacked on at the end" to the 6-, 7-, or 9-step versions of hypothesis testing to create the 7-, 8-, or 10-step versions of the hybrid approach to testing null hypotheses?
  2. The revised alpha level
    The revised Ho
    The critical value
    The p-value
    The M and SD of the sample data
A Few Warnings
  1. Which of the 3 approaches to testing an Ho has/have the ability to bring forth interesting results even if the null hypothesis is quite silly?
  2. Hypothesis testing
    Significance testing
    The hybrid approach
    All of them
    None of them
  3. (T/F) The practical significance of a study can be assessed by looking to see how small the p-value is.
  4. True
    False
  5. In the hybrid approach, what's considered a "near miss" or "highly significant" is highly subjective.
  6. True
    False
  7. If p turns out equal to 0.0000, this means that the null hypothesis has been proven to be false.
  8. True
    False
  9. Who is ultimately in control of the level of significance associated with any use of the hypothesis testing procedure or the hybrid approach to testing null hypotheses:
  10. The research subjects
    The journal's editorial board
    The researcher
    The scientific community
    The recipient of the research report

 

Copyright © 2012

Schuyler W. Huck
All rights reserved.

| Book Info | Author Info |

Site URL: www.readingstats.com

Top | Site Map
Site Design: John W. Taylor V