Quiz (Chapter 8, Second Part)

Significance Testing and the Hybrid Approach to Testing Ho

Introduction
1. In all three versions of hypothesis testing (6-step, 7-step, 9-step), Ho is rejected if p< a.
2.  True False
3. Significance testing is used _______ than hypothesis testing.
4.  more often less often
Significance Testing: It's Component Parts
1. Significance testing involves fewer steps than even the 6-step version of hypothesis testing.
2.  True False
3. How many of the following 8 components of hypothesis testing is/are absent from significance testing? (a) Ho (b) Ha (c) choice between a one/two-tailed test (d) a (e) collection of sample data (f) computation of a test statistic (g) determination of p (h) a reject/fail-to-reject decision
4.  0 1 2 3 4
5. Can a researcher engage in statistical testing without initially deciding upon his/her study's statistical focus?
6.  Yes No
7. The Ho in significance testing takes the same form as the null hypothesis in hypothesis testing.
8.  True False
9. In significance testing, the one-/two-tailed decision should be made ____ the data are examined.
10.  before after
11. In contrast to the p in hypothesis testing, the p in significance testing will be small if the data support Ho.
12.  True False
13. In significance testing, how is p normally reported?
14.  Precisely (e.g., p =.02) In a "less-than" format (e.g., p<.05)
15. In significance testing, the researcher does not end up rejecting or failing-to-reject his/her Ho.
16.  True False
Significance Testing Using "p-less-than" and "p-greater-than" Statements
1. When results are reported by a researcher who has performed significance testing, the symbol between p and a decimal number will always an equal sign (and never < or >).
2.  True False
3. Can someone do significance testing if he/she doesn't have a computer and thus can't determine p precisely?
4.  Yes No
The Hybrid Approach: The Simple Idea
1. True significance testing does not involve an a-level or a reject/fail-to-reject decision about Ho.
2.  True False
3. The six-step hypothesis testing procedure does not permit the researcher to report "impressive" results (e.g., p<.001) if he/she has decided, in Step 3 of the process, to use the .05 level of significance.
4.  True False
5. In the hybrid approach, what will the researcher report besides his/her reject/retain decision concerning Ho?
6.  The p-value The critical value
7. If a researcher reports that his/her data revealed a "significant differenceat p<.001" but doesn't say anything at all about using an a-level, what should you guess happened?
8.  He/she did significance testing He/she did hypothesis testing with a = .001 He/she used the hybrid approach with a = .05
The Hybrid Approach: Terms for "Near Misses" and "Impressive" Findings
1. If a researcher is using the .05 level of significance, which of these data-based p-levels might very well prompt him/her to report that the results "indicate a trend toward significance?"
2.  p = .003 p = .048 p = .054 p = .377 p = .983
3. The 3 terms "marginally significant," "approached significance" and "of borderline significance" all designate the same kind of result.
4.  True False
5. If a researcher sets alpha at .05, which of these data-based p-levels mightvery well prompt him/her to report that the results were "highly significant?
6.  p = .003 p = .048 p = .054 p = .377 p = .983
The Hybrid Approach: Reporting Fail-to-Reject Decisions With "p-less-than" Statements
1. If you see "p < .30," this means that the null hypothesis was rejected at the .30 level of significance.
2.  True False
3. A researcher might state that "p< .20" in order to communicate the finding that "p > .05."
4.  True False
The Hybrid Approach: The "One-Sided" Alternative
1. If a researcher uses the "one-sided" variation to the hybrid approach to testing null hypotheses, his/her  alternative hypothesis will automatically be directional in nature.
2.  True False
3. In using the "one-sided" variation of the hybrid approach, which of these two things will researchers do?
4.  Use terms like "marginally significant" if p is slightly higher than a, but simply say "significant" if p < a Use terms like "highly significant" if p is way under a, but simply say "not significant" if p > a
The Hybrid Approach: The 7-Step, 8-Step, and 10-Step Options
1. What gets "tacked on at the end" to the 6-, 7-, or 9-step versions of hypothesis testing to create the 7-, 8-, or 10-step versions of the hybrid approach to testing null hypotheses?
2.  The revised alpha level The revised Ho The critical value The p-value The M and SD of the sample data
A Few Warnings
1. Which of the 3 approaches to testing an Ho has/have the ability to bring forth interesting results even if the null hypothesis is quite silly?
2.  Hypothesis testing Significance testing The hybrid approach All of them None of them
3. (T/F) The practical significance of a study can be assessed by looking to see how small the p-value is.
4.  True False
5. In the hybrid approach, what's considered a "near miss" or "highly significant" is highly subjective.
6.  True False
7. If p turns out equal to 0.0000, this means that the null hypothesis has been proven to be false.
8.  True False
9. Who is ultimately in control of the level of significance associated with any use of the hypothesis testing procedure or the hybrid approach to testing null hypotheses:
10.  The research subjects The journal's editorial board The researcher The scientific community The recipient of the research report