Quiz Over 2nd
Half of Chapter 7 (pp. 144-159) of the
A different quiz covered the 1st half
of Ch. 7 (Steps 1, 2 , 4, & 6)
Step #5: The Criterion for Evaluating the Sample Evidence
- In testing Ho: m1=m2,
what decision would be made (in Step #6) if the 2 sample means are the
- In a correlational study, if we somehow knew that r
= 0.00, should we expect a random sample to yield data such that
r = 0.00?
- "If the difference between the data and __ (Ho/Ha)
is judged to be ___ (small/large), then the sample data are looked upon
as being inconsistent with Ho and, as a consequence,
Ho will be ___ (rejected/retained)."
- In Step #5, the calculated value can be compared against a criterion
number that comes from a statistical table. That criterion number
is called the _____ .
- If the calculated value exceeds the criterion number obtained from
a statistical table, will Ho be rejected?
- (T/F) Normally, the critical value is not presented
in the journal article.
- If a researcher compares the data-based p-value with the level of
significance (instead of comparing the calculated value with a critical
value), Ho will be rejected if p is ___ (smaller/larger)
than the level of significance.
- A small p-value indicates that the sample data deviate ___ (a little/a
lot) from what would be expected if the null hypothesis was true.
- Which procedure gives the researcher the better chance to reject
- comparing the data-based p-value with the level of significance
- comparing the calculated value with a critical value
- neither procedure gives the researcher a better chance of rejecting
Step #3: Selecting the Level of Significance
- (T/F) The level of significance is like a scientific cut-off
point that allows the researcher to determine whether the discrepancy
between the sample evidence and Ho should be labeled "small"
- A researcher should determine the level of significance ____ (before/after)
the sample data are collected.
- What level of significance is used most frequently by applied researchers?
- What lower-case Greek letter denotes the significance level?
(Answer with both a word and a symbol)
- (T/F) The hypothesis testing procedure does not allow one to prove
that the null hypothesis is true, but it does permit one to prove
that the null hypothesis is false.
- What type of mistake is made if a true null hypothesis is rejected?
If a false null hypothesis is not rejected?
- The chances of making a Type __ error are equal to the significance
- If the level of significance is made more rigorous, this change will
decrease the chances of a Type __ error but at the same time increase
the chance of a Type __ error.
- Which kind of error (Type I or Type II) is generally thought to be
worse by the scientific community?
- Do researchers ever choose a level of significance that's more "lenient"
than the popular .05 level?
- In Excerpt 7.23, the statement "p < 0.05" means the same thing as
- a < .05
- a = .05
- a > .05
- (T/F) The chance of a Type II error (like the chance of a Type
I error) is determined solely by the alpha.
- After making a decision about Ho, will the researcher
be able to tell whether his/her decision was correct?
- If a researcher rejects his/her Ho, does the level of
significance indicate the probability that Ho is true?
Results That Are Highly Significant and Near Misses
- (T/F) The level of significance influences the size of the
tabled critical value..
- A researcher might use the phrase "highly significant" if
- p > .999
- p < .001
- (T/F) Whenever you see the notation "p < .01," you
should presume that the researcher set alpha equal to .01.
- A researcher might say that his/her results "approached significance" if
the data-based p-level ends up being just slightly ______ (lower/higher)
than the level of significance.
- Suppose a researcher sets alpha equal to .05 and then discovers,
after analyzing the data, that p = .051. In summarizing his/her finding,
what might this researcher might say?
- "There was a trend toward significance."
- "The result was not significant."
- He/she might say either of the things contained in the first two
A Few Cautions
- Alpha should be a number close to 0 if it's referring to _____ but
close to 1.0 if it's referring to _____ .
- Regarding Ho & Ha, which is/are normally
specified in a journal article?
- If a researcher says that "the data support the hypothesis," to which
hypothesis is he/she probably referring?
- It could be Ho or Ha
- It could be any of one of the 3: Ho or Ha
- If Ho is rejected at a very rigorous a-level, is
it OK to conclude that something important has been revealed?
- (T/F) If a finding is "statistically significant," this means that
it's big, important, and useful.
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