Quiz Over 1ST HALF of Chapter 7 (pp. 131-144) of the 6th Edition Hypothesis Testing NOTE:  Whenever used, the abbreviated "HT" stands for the phrase, "hypothesis testing" Introduction (T/F) Hypothesis testing (HT) involves a form of logic that seems, at first glance, "topsy-turvy." How many steps are there in the simplest, most "bare-bones" version of HT? The 4 "preliminary questions" that must be dealt with by a researcher engaged in HT ____ (are/are not) common to all forms of inferential statistics. An Ordered List of the Six Steps (T/F)  In HT, the sample data are collected & analyzed before the null hypothesis is stated. (T/F)  In HT, the level of significance is selected after the sample data are collected & analyzed. Step #1:  The Null Hypothesis What's false here: The null hypothesis is vague, deals with a sample statistic, and comes from a formula. What symbol denotes the null hypothesis? (Yes/No)  Must the "statistical focus" selected by the researcher be reflected in the null hypothesis? Which of these is not a legitimate null hypothesis: Ho:  m = 0 Ho:  m > 0 Ho:  m = 10 What's the minimum number of populations that can be involved in a study wherein HT is used? (T/F) In studies involving 2 populations, the Ho must be set up to be a "no difference" statement. Why are these 2 null hypotheses equivalent in meaning? Ho:  m1 = m2 Ho:  sm2 = 0 If a null hypothesis about group means is expressed in symbols (starting with Ho), which of the following will NOT be revealed? The fact that the focus is on populations. The fact that the focus is on means. The number of groups. The nature of the dependent variable. (T/F)  The null hypothesis usually corresponds with the researcher's hunch about the way things really are. Step #6:  The Decision Regarding the Null Hypothesis In Step 6, a researcher will make a decision about Ho;  he/she will either _____ Ho or  _____ Ho. In each of these cases, what is the researcher's likely decision about Ho if he/she indicates that p < .01 Ho is tenable p > .05 ns reliable differences exist Step #2:  The Alternative Hypothesis Whereas the null hypothesis is symbolized as Ho, the alternative hypothesis is symbolized as __ or __ . (Yes/No)  Will the alternative hypothesis ever be set up to say the same thing as the null hypothesis? In a correlational study, what would a nondirectional Ha look like if the null hypothesis says:  Ho: r = 0 (T/F)  Researchers typically set up their alternative hypotheses to be directional (not nondirectional). (T/F)  Ha, if set up to be nondirectional, could legitimately be referred to as being "two-sided." If Ha is set up to be directional, this means that the inferential test being conducted is ___ (1/2)-tailed. What would Ha look like if the researcher is conducting a two-tailed test of Ho: m = 50? What would Ho look like, if set up to be "inexact," if it's paired with Ha: m > 100? Step #4:  Collection and Analysis of Sample Data If the sample statistic and the hypothesized population parameter are very similar, the null hypothesis _____ (will/won't) be rejected. If the sample statistic and the hypothesized population parameter are quite dissimilar, the null hypothesis _____ (will/won't) be rejected. The numerical value that summarizes the sample data (in Step 4) is called the _____ or the ______ . (T/F)  When HT is focused on Pearson's correlation, the calculated value usually is the sample value, r. (T/F)  A study's statistical focus normally does not show up in the calculated value computed in Step #4. A small p-value indicates that the sample data deviate ___ (a little/a lot) from what would be expected if the null hypothesis was true . . . and thus the null hypothesis ____ (should/shouldn't) be rejected. (T/F) In Excerpt 7.14, the 3rd correlation would have had a better chance of being significant if that particular r had turned out equal to .03 rather than .19. Click here for answers. NOTE:  Questions dealing with the 2nd half of Chapter 7 appear in a separate quiz.