Quiz Over 1ST HALF of Chapter 7 (pp. 131-144) of the 6th Edition

Hypothesis Testing

NOTE:  Whenever used, the abbreviated "HT" stands for the phrase, "hypothesis testing"

Introduction
1. Hypothesis testing (HT) involves a form of logic that seems, at first glance, "topsy-turvy."
2.  True False
3. How many steps are there in the simplest, most "bare-bones" version of HT?
4.  3 4 5 6
5. The 4 "preliminary questions" that must be dealt with by a researcher engaged in HT ____ (are/are not) common to all forms of inferential statistics.
6.  are are not
An Ordered List of the Six Steps
1. In HT, the sample data are collected & analyzed before the null hypothesis is stated.
2.  True False
3. In HT, the level of significance is selected after the sample data are collected & analyzed.
4.  True False
Step #1:  The Null Hypothesis
1. Which of the following statements is true concerning null hypotheses?
2.  The null hypothesis is vague, not pin-point. The null hypothesis is a statement about the sample, not the population. The null hypothesis comes from the researcher, not a formula.
3. What symbol denotes the null hypothesis?
4.  N.H. Hn H1 Ho
5. Must the "statistical focus" selected by the researcher be reflected in the null hypothesis?
6.  Yes No
7. Which of the following is not a legitimate null hypothesis?
8.  Ho:  m = 0 Ho:  m > 0 Ho:  m = 10
9. What's the minimum number of populations that can be involved in a study wherein HT is used?
10.  0 1 2 6
11. In studies involving 2 populations, the Ho must be set up to be a "no difference" statement.
12.  True False
13. Are these 2 null hypotheses equivalent in meaning? (a) Hom1 = m2 and (b) Hosm2 = 0
14.  Yes No
15. If a null hypothesis about group means is expressed in symbols (starting with Ho), which of the following will NOT be revealed?
16.  The fact that the focus is on populations. The fact that the focus is on means. The number of groups. The nature of the dependent variable.
17. The null hypothesis usually corresponds with the researcher's hunch about the way things really are.
18.  True False
Step #6:  The Decision Regarding the Null Hypothesis
1. In Step 6, a researcher will make a decision about Ho;  he/she will either _____ Ho.
2.  change or leave unchanged expand or make smaller reject or fail-to-reject share or hide
3. Researchers often signal that they have rejected Ho be stating
4.  p > .01 p > .05 Ho is tenable ns reliable differences exist
Step #2:  The Alternative Hypothesis
1. Whereas the null hypothesis is symbolized as Ho, the alternative hypothesis is symbolized as Ha or __ .
2.  A.H. HA.H. Ho H1 Hz
3. Will the alternative hypothesis ever be set up to say the same thing as the null hypothesis?
4.  Yes No
5. In a correlational study, what would a nondirectional Ha look like if the null hypothesis says:  Ho: r = 0
6.  Ha:  r = +1 Ha:  r = -1 Ha:  r = +1 or -1 None of the above
7. Researchers typically set up their alternative hypotheses to be directional (not nondirectional).
8.  True False
9. Ha, if set up to be nondirectional, could legitimately be referred to as being "two-sided."
10.  True False
11. If Ha is set up to be directional, this means that the inferential test being conducted is
12.  one-tailed two-tailed multi-tailed
13. How many alternative hypotheses will there be if the researcher is conducting a two-tailed test of Ho: m = 50?
14.  Just one Two Fifty
15. What would an "inexact" Ho specify if it's paired with Ha: m > 100?
16.  m is approximately 100 m is less than or equal to 100 m is greater than or equal to 100 m is equal to 100
Step #4:  Collection and Analysis of Sample Data
1. If the sample statistic and the hypothesized population parameter are very, very similar, the null hypothesis won't be rejected.
2.  True False
3. If the sample statistic and the hypothesized population parameter are quite dissimilar, the null hypothesis will be rejected.
4.  True False
5. The numerical value that summarizes the sample data (in Step 4) is called the calculated value or the ______ .
6.  critical value null value standardized statistic test statistic
7. When HT is focused on Pearson's correlation, the calculated value usually is the sample value, r.
8.  True False
9. A study's statistical focus normally does not show up in the calculated value computed in Step #4.
10.  True False
11. A small p-value indicates that the sample data deviate ___ (a little/a lot) from what would be expected if the null hypothesis was true . . . and thus the null hypothesis _____ (should/shouldn't) be rejected.
12.  a little; should a little; shouldn't a lot, should a lot; shouldn't
13. (T/F) In Excerpt 7.14, the 3rd correlation would have had a better chance of being significant if that particular r had turned out equal to .03 rather than .19.
14.  True False

NOTE:  Questions dealing with the 2nd half of Chapter 7 appear in a separate quiz.