Quiz (Chapter 18)


Statistical Tests on Ranks (Nonparametric Tests)

Introduction

  1. The simplest kind of quantitative data involve _____.
  2. Test procedures such as the median test and the Mann-Whitney U test are called ______ tests.

Obtaining Ranked Data
  1. In how many different ways can a researcher "produce" data that take the form of ranks?
  2. In Excerpt 18.2, what data were used in computing the Spearman correlation?
    1. The 1st of the 2 numbers recorded by the 2nd researcher.
    2. The 2nd of the 2 numbers recorded by the 2nd researcher.

Reason for Converting Scores on a Continuous Variable into Ranks
  1. Test procedures designed for use with ranks involve ____ (fewer/more) assumptions than procedures designed for use with interval- or ratio-level data.
  2. Unequal or small sample sizes prompt many researchers to ____ (use/not use) tests based on ranks.
  3. (T/F) The total scores people earn on a Likert-type attitude inventory are probably only ordinal in nature.

The Median Test
  1. The median test is used to compare 2 or more groups that are _____ (independent/correlated).
  2. In comparing 3 groups with a median test, how many medians would appear in the test's null hypothesis?
  3. In comparing 3 groups with a median test, how many medians need to be computed from the sample data?
  4. The calculated value in a median test is referred to as ___.
    1. t
    2. F
    3. c2
  5. (T/F) If, in Excerpt 18.10, group C's median healing time had been 12 weeks (rather than 14 weeks), the null hypothesis might have been rejected.

The Mann-Whitney U Test
  1. The Mann-Whitney U test test is used to compare 2 groups that are _____ (independent/correlated).
  2. In the study associated with Excerpt 18.11, the sums of ranks for the 2 institutions were quite _____ (similar/different).
  3. The task of interpreting a significant result from a Mann-Whitney U test is _____ (easy/difficult).
  4. (T/F) If the U test leads to a rejection of Ho, the populations might differ in their means, medians, or modes.
  5. There is a ______ (direct/indirect) relationship between the size of U, the calculated value, and the size of p.

The Kruskal-Wallis H Test
  1. The Kruskal-Wallis H test is used to compare 3 or more groups that are _____ (independent/correlated).
  2. (T/F) In both the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests, a "sum of ranks" is computed for each sample.
  3. The information in Excerpt 18.12 shows that there is a(n) _____ (direct/indirect) relationship between the size of H and the size of p.
  4. In a Kruskal-Wallis test, Ho is rejected if the calculated H is ____ (smaller/larger) than the critical value.
  5. In Excerpt 18.14, how many Mann-Whitney U tests were conducted in the post hoc investigation following the significant Kruskal-Wallis result?

The Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed-Ranks Test
  1. Wilcoxon's test is used to compare __ (how many?) sets of scores that are _____ (independent/correlated).
  2. The calculated value in a Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test is referred to by what capital letter?
  3. In Excerpt 18.15, what would have happened to T and p if the two sums of ranks had been more similar?
    1. Both T and p would have been smaller.
    2. T would have been larger but p would have been smaller.
    3. T would have been smaller but p would have been larger.
    4. Both T and p would have been larger.
  4. In a Wilcoxon test, Ho is rejected if the calculated value is ____ (smaller/larger) than the critical value.
  5. A significant T suggests that the 2 populations differ in what way, assuming they have the same shape?

Friedman's Two-Way Analysis of Variance of Ranks
  1. Friedman's test is used to compare __ (how many?) sets of scores that are _____ (independent/correlated).
  2. Which parametric ANOVA is analogous to the Friedman two-way analysis of variance of ranks?
  3. If each of 3 people tastes 3 soft drinks and then ranks them, what should you expect the "sum of ranks" to be for any of the beverages if the null hypothesis (that the 3 beverages are equally good) is true?
  4. Read Excerpt 18.16 and the paragraph above it. Based on these descriptions of the study, how many sets of ranks were there?
    1. 3
    2. 25
    3. 49
    4. It's impossible to tell based on the information provided.
  5. If the Friedman test yields a significant result, what test is likely to be used in a post hoc investigation?

Large-Sample Versions of the Tests on Ranks; Ties
  1. (T/F) A test on ranks made via a z-test (due to large samples) can be thought of as a "normal curve test."
  2. The _____ test can be thought of as the "small-sample" version of the median test.
  3. In Excerpt 18.17, which number(s) allow us to know that data came from more women that men?
    1. The 3 means (12, 16, and 5)
    2. The standard deviation (21)
    3. The calculated value, z (-7.15)
    4. The probability, p, associated with z (<.001).
  4. The regular median test is inherently a ______ (small-sample/large-sample) test.
  5. (T/F) When ties occur in tests on ranks, the only thing a researcher can do is discard the tied scores.

A Few Final Comments
  1. Nonparametric tests ___ (are/are not) based on the assumption that the data come from random samples.
  2. In Excerpt 18.11, the means and standard deviations for the two samples ____ (do/don't) suggest the presence of "overlapping distributions."
  3. The last sentence in the 2nd paragraph on p. 454 urges you not to use _____ as the criterion for judging the worth of empirical studies.
    1. how large or small the sample size is
    2. how "impressive" the data-based p-level is
    3. what alpha level was used
    4. whether Ho is or isn't rejected


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