Quiz (Chapter 18)

Statistical Tests on Ranks (Nonparametric Tests)

Introduction
1. The simplest kind of quantitative data would be exemplified by
2.  timing how long runners take to complete a 5K race. using a person's phone number as his/her ID. giving each student a rank to indicate his/her test performance. coding a person's eye color as 1=brown, 2=blue, 3=green, etc.
3. Test procedures such as the median test and the Mann-Whitney U test are called ______ tests.
4.  parametric nonparametric data-dependent data-free
Obtaining Ranked Data
1. In how many different ways can a researcher "produce" data that take the form of ranks?
2.  2 3 4
3. In Excerpt 18.2, what data were used in computing the Spearman correlation?
4.  The 1st of the 2 numbers recorded by the 3rd researcher. The 2nd of the 2 numbers recorded by the 3rd researcher.
Reason for Converting Scores on a Continuous Variable into Ranks
1. Test procedures designed for use with ranks involve ____ assumptions than procedures designed for use with interval- or ratio-level data.
2.  fewer more
3. Unequal or small sample sizes prompt many researchers to ____ tests based on ranks.
4.  use avoid using
5. The total scores people earn on a Likert-type attitude inventory are probably only ordinal in nature.
6.  True False
The Median Test
1. The median test is used to compare 2 or more groups that are _____.
2.  independent correlated
3. In comparing 3 groups with a median test, how many medians would appear in the test's null hypothesis?
4.  None 1 3 It depends on the number of subjects involved in the study.
5. In comparing 3 groups with a median test, how many medians need to be computed from the sample data?
6.  None 1 3 It depends on the number of subjects involved in the study.
7. The calculated value in a median test is referred to as ___.
8.  t F c2
9. If, in Excerpt 18.10, group C's median healing time had been 12 weeks (rather than 14 weeks), the null hypothesis might have been rejected.
10.  True False
The Mann-Whitney U Test
1. The Mann-Whitney U test test is used to compare 2 groups that are _____.
2.  independent correlated
3. In the study associated with Excerpt 18.11, the sums of ranks for the 2 institutions were quite _____ (similar/different).
4.  Similar Different
5. Is the task of interpreting a significant result from a Mann-Whitney U test easy or difficult?
6.  Easy Difficult
7. If the U test leads to a rejection of Ho, the populations might differ in their means, medians, or modes.
8.  True False
9. There is a ______ (direct/indirect) relationship between the size of U, the calculated value, and the size of p.
10.  direct indirect
The Kruskal-Wallis H Test
1. The Kruskal-Wallis H test is used to compare 3 or more groups that are _____.
2.  independent correlated
3. In both the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests, a "sum of ranks" is computed for each sample.
4.  True False
5. The information in Excerpt 18.12 shows that there is a(n) _____ (direct/indirect) relationship between the size of H and the size of p.
6.  direct indirect
7. In a Kruskal-Wallis test, Ho is rejected if the calculated H is ____ than the critical value.
8.  smaller larger
9. In Excerpt 18.14, how many Mann-Whitney U tests were conducted in the post hoc investigation following the significant Kruskal-Wallis result?
10.  3 4 5 6 It is impossible to determine based on the information provided.

The Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed-Ranks Test

1. Wilcoxon's test is used to compare __ sets of scores that are _____.
2.  2; independent 2; correlated 3 or more; independent 3 or more; correlated
3. The calculated value in a Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test is referred to by what capital letter?
4.  M P S T W
5. In Excerpt 18.15, what would have happened to T and p if the two sums of ranks had been more similar?
6.  Both T and p would have been smaller. T would have been larger but p would have been smaller. T would have been smaller but p would have been larger. Both T and p would have been larger.
7. In a Wilcoxon test, Ho is rejected if the calculated value is ____ than the critical value.
8.  smaller larger
9. A significant T suggests that the 2 populations differ in their _______, assuming they have the same shape.
10.  means medians modes
Friedman's Two-Way Analysis of Variance of Ranks
1. Friedman's test is used to compare 2 or more sets of scores that are _____.
2.  independent correlated
3. Which parametric ANOVA is analogous to the Friedman two-way analysis of variance of ranks?
4.  A two-way ANOVA A one-way repeated measures ANOVA A two-way repeated measures ANOVA (with 2 within-subjects factors) A two-way mixed ANOVA
5. If each of 3 people tastes 3 soft drinks and then ranks them, what should you expect the "sum of ranks" to be for any of the beverages if the null hypothesis (that the 3 beverages are equally good) is true?
6.  3 6 9 It is impossible to determine based on the information provided.
7. Read Excerpt 18.16 and the paragraph above it. Based on these descriptions of the study, how many sets of ranks were there?
8.  3 25 49 It is impossible to tell based on the available information.
9. If the Friedman test yields a significant result, what test is likely to be used in a post hoc investigation?
10.  The Median test The Mann-Whitney U test The Wilcoxon test The Kruskal-Wallis test
Large-Sample Versions of the Tests on Ranks; Ties
1. A test on ranks made via a z-test (due to large samples) can be thought of as a "normal curve test."
2.  True False
3. Fisher's Exact Test can be thought of as the "small-sample" version of what other test?
4.  The median test The Mann-Whitney U test The Wilcoxon test The Kruskal-Wallis test
5. In Excerpt 18.17, which number(s) allow us to know that data came from more women that men?
6.  The 3 means (12, 16, and 5) The standard deviation (21) The calculated value, z (-7.15) The probability, p, associated with z (<.001).
7. The regular median test is inherently a ______ (small-sample/large-sample) test.
8.  small-sample large-sample
9. When ties occur in tests on ranks, the only thing a researcher can do is discard the tied scores.
10.  True False