  Quiz (Chapter 17)

Inferences on Percentages, Proportions, and Frequencies

Introduction
1. If concerned with group membership, researchers compute summaries such as frequencies, proportions, or _____.
2.  means medians modes ranges percentages
3. What level of measurement is contained in the data if a researcher measures people in terms of gender?
4.  Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio
The Sign Test, the Binomial Test, and Fisher's Exact Test
1. Look at Excerpt 17.1. If 15 (rather than 12) of the 20 people had correctly discriminated the difference in circles, the p-value would have been _____ than 0.2517.
2.  larger smaller
3. A sign test be used either with 1 group measured twice or with 2 matched groups.
 True False
4. The binomial test is exactly like a sign test, except the _____ has a more "flexible" Ho.
5.  binomial test sign test
6. A binomial test can be used either with 1 group measured twice or with 2 matched groups.
 True False
7. There are __ comparison groups involved in a Fisher's Exact Test, and these groups must represent ______ samples.
8.  2; independent 2; dependent 3; independent 3; dependent
9. The null hypothesis in a Fisher's Exact Test says that the population proportions are ____.
10.  equal to each other. equal to .50.
11. In Excerpt 17.4, the sample data would have been most "in line with" the null hypothesis if ___ of the members of the control group had said they were very satisfied with the overall treatment and outcome.
12.  2 15 17 28
Chi-Square Tests: An Introduction
1. Most chi-square tests (but not all of them) deal with nominal data.
2.  True False
3. What Greek symbol is used to indicate that a chi-square tests has been conducted?
4.  a2 l2 c2 D2
5. If a chi-square test is used with frequencies, it most likely is Pearson's approximation to chi square.
6.  True False
Three Main Types of Chi-Square Tests
1. A 4-category 1-sample c2 test could yield a "p<.05" result if 25% of the sample falls in each category.
2.  True False
3. If 30 men in the male sample exercise but 10 don't, how many of the 60 women in the female sample would have to exercise in order for the sample data to be in full agreement with the chi-square null hypothesis?
4.  15 30 45 50
5. In Excerpt 17.9, how many df were associated with the c2 test that was conducted?
6.  279 278 277 1
7. When chi square is used with a contingency table, the researcher must specify the values of P in Ho.
8.  True False
9. If, in Table 17.3 (on page 416), the control group's percentages for "Technique" and "Don't Know" had been reversed, the computed value of c2 in Excerpt 17.10 would have been ______ than 21.80.
 smaller larger
10. In a "cross-tabulation analysis," the data are means and standard deviations.
11.  True False
Chi Square as a Correlational Probe
1. When chi-square is used in a correlational sense, researchers sometimes call it a "chi square test of ____."
2.  association independence relationship scatter
3. For 2x2 contingency tables, chi-square can be converted into a correlational index called ____.
4.  gamma epsilon phi omega
5. For contingency tables with 3 or more rows/columns, c2 can be converted into what correlational index?
6.  Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient, r The biserial correlation coefficient, rb The Point biserial correlation coefficient, rpb The contingency coefficient, C
7. In Excerpt 17.14, if the 2 Black percentages had been 50% and 50%, the numerical value of c2 would have been _____ (larger/smaller) than 9.94, and the numerical value of phi would have been _____ (larger/smaller) than .28.
8.  larger; larger larger; smaller smaller; larger smaller; smaller
Issues Related to Chi-Square Tests
1. With chi-square tests, the df are determined by what?
 The sample size. The number of categories.
2. If a researcher used chi-square to see if a relationship exists between the political affiliation of bumper stickers (Republican vs. Democrat) and driver's age (<30, 30-50, >50), the df would be equal to __.
3.  1 2 3 5 6
4. If a chi-square test comparing the percentage of men and women getting one or more traffic tickets in the past year leads to a significant result, a post hoc test ____ be needed to clarify the results.
5.  would would not
6. Chi-square should not be used if the _____ frequencies are too small.
7.  expected observed
8. Researchers sometimes use the "Yates correction" when their chi square's df is equal to what numerical value(s)?
9.  0 1 Anything greater than 1 Any non-integer value
McNemar's Chi Square
1. McNemar's chi square is appropriate when the 2 samples of data are ______.
2.  independent correlated
3. McNemar's chi-square test is very much like a
4.  sign test paired t-test two-way ANOVA hierarchical multiple regression
5. McNemar's chi-square test ____ be used with matched groups.
6.  can cannot
The Cochran Q Test
1. Cochran's test is used when there are 3 or more ______ samples giving data on a dependent variable having _____ categories?
2.  independent; 2 independent; more than 2 correlated; 2 correlated; more than 2
3. If Cochran's test leads to a rejection of the omnibus null hypothesis, what test will probably be used to make pairwise post hoc comparisons?
4.  Fisher's exact test McNemar's chi square test The sign test The binomial test
The Use of z-Tests When Dealing With Proportions
1. Researchers sometimes use z-tests rather than sign, binomial, and McNemar tests when
2.  underlying assumptions are not met. the null hypothesis can't be rejected. the sample sizes are big.
A Few Final Thoughts
1. Statistical tests that focus on frequencies, percentages, or proportions have a built-in feature that prevents Type I errors from occurring.
2.  True False
3. The Bonferroni technique _____ be used with tests on frequencies, percentages, and proportions.
4.  can can't
5. To judge whether a chi-square-based effect is small, medium, or large, researchers often convert their chi-square calculated value into a ___ or ___ correlation.
6.  Pearson's r or Spearman's rho biserial or point biserial phi or Cramer's V
7. In Excerpt 17.25, the researchers conducted a(n) _______ power analysis.
8.  a priori post hoc