Quiz Over the 2nd Half of Chapter 13 (pp. 292-310)

Two-Way Analyses of Variance

NOTE: A different quiz covers the 1st half of Chapter 13 (pages 276-292.)

Follow-Up Tests
  1. If none of the two-way ANOVA's Fs turns out to be significant, no follow-up tests will be conducted.
  2. True
  3. Follow-up tests can be used to "probe" significant main effects ___ significant interactions.
  4. and
    but not
Follow-Up Tests to Probe Significant Main Effects
  1. In Excerpt 13.9, the significant main effect of vignette required no follow-up investigation because there were only 2 levels of the vignette factor.
  2. True
  3. In Excerpt 13.10, how many Tukey pairwise tests were conducted?
  4. 2
  5. If post hoc tests are used to probe the significant main effects of a 2x3 ANOVA, how many null hypotheses will be tested in the post hoc investigation?
  6. 2
Follow-Up Tests to Probe a Significant Interaction
  1. Researchers usually refrain from interpreting the main effect F-ratios if the interaction is significant.
  2. True
  3. In the middle portion of Figure 13.1, which Source(s) would be "ns" if the cell mean of 5 is changed to 35?
  4. The main effect for A
    The main effect for B
    The main effects for A and B
    The AxB interaction
    The AxB interaction and one of the main effects
  5. In a graph of a cell means, the ordinate is usually labeled with the name of
  6. the dependent variable.
    either of the 2 factors.
    the levels of one of the 2 factors.
    the interaction.
    the sources (from the summary table) that turned out significant.
  7. If a statistically significant interaction is graphed, the lines in the graph ___ be parallel.
  8. will
  9. Comparing cell means that lie in individual rows and/or individual columns is a test of
  10. a main effect.
    simple main effects.
    the interaction.
    simple interactions.
  11. In Excerpt 13.11, there would have been less interaction if the High/NC group had ended up with a mean equal to
  12. 120
    It is impossible to determine
  13. If the interaction from Excerpt 13.12 were to be displayed in a graph like that shown in Excerpt 13.11, how many lines would be in the graph?
  14. 2
  15. In Excerpt 13.12, what kind of means were involved in each Tukey test that was conducted?
  16. cell means
    main effect means
  17. If the follow-up strategy used Excerpt 13.13 had been used in Excerpt 13.12, a total of __ pairwise comparisons would have been made.
  18. 9
Planned Comparisons
  1. In two-way ANOVAs, planned comparisons ___ be done if the interaction is not significant.
  2. can
  3. In Excerpt 13.14, the planned comparison was _____ in nature.
  4. pairwise
Assumptions Associated With a Two-Way ANOVA
  1. The assumptions of a two-way ANOVA are the same as those associated with a one-way ANOVA.
  2. True
  3. Violations of the equal variance assumptions of a two-way ANOVA are more disruptive when the __'s differ.
  4. main effect means
    cell means
    sample sizes
    number of levels in the 2 factors
  5. In testing the normality and equal variance assumptions, researchers hope for nonsignificant results.
  6. True
  7. Hartley's F-max test focuses on the ________ assumption.
  8. normality
    equal variance
  9. If the normality or equal variance assumption seems untenable, the researcher can either turn to a different test having fewer assumptions or ____.
  10. change the null hypotheses
    change the alternative hypotheses
    transform the data
    divide the data-based p-level by 2
    change the level of significance from .05 to .10
  11. The term "____" means that a statistical tests functions as it should even if the assumptions are violated.
  12. untainted
  13. If an F-test turns out larger than it should, it is said to be
  14. positively biased.
    negatively biased.
Effect Size Indices, Strength of Association Measures, and Power Analyses
  1. Two-way ANOVAs ___ yield results that have statistical but no practical significance.
  2. can
  3. Excerpt 13.18 illustrates the fact that a single index of "practical significance" is computed for any two-way ANOVA, not individual indices for each main effect and the interaction.
  4. True
  5. It's better to do a power analysis ____ the data are collected and analyzed.
  6. before
  7. A strength-of-effect index can be computed for each main effect F and for the interaction F.
  8. True
  9. The two most commonly used strength-of-effect measures are called _____ and _____.
  10. alpha squared; beta squared
    delta squared; gamma squared
    eta squared; omega squared
    iota squared; epsilon squared
  11. Most researchers ___ distinguish between statistical and practical significance in 2-way ANOVAs.
  12. do
The Inflated Type I Error Rate in Factorial ANOVAs
  1. Since a 2-way ANOVA with 1 dependent variable yields 3 F-tests, most researchers divide a by 3.
  2. True
  3. If a researcher sets a equal to .05 when evaluating each of the 3 F-tests, the "______" error rate is equal to .05.
  4. pairwise
  5. The chances of a ______ error will be increased if a researcher conducts 2 or more two-way ANOVAs without using the Bonferroni adjustment procedure (or some other procedure) to adjust alpha.
  6. Type I
    Type II
A Few Warnings Concerning Two-Way ANOVAs
  1. If the research questions are not worth investigating, there's a fatal flaw in the study than cannot be salvaged by a two-way ANOVA . . . even if all assumptions are met and all analyses are properly executed.
  2. True
  3. In Excerpt 13.9, the researchers report that "... the participants who read the weight-related teasing vignette reported significantly more negative affect (M = 15.75, SD = 4.99) than did those who read the neutral vignette (M = 13.87, SD = 3.42)." Do the reported SDs suggest the presence of "overlapping distributions"?
  4. Yes
  5. Because a two-way ANOVA is so powerful, its F-tests never lead to either Type I or Type II errors.
  6. True
  7. If the main effect means for one of the factors in a two-way ANOVA turn out to be identical, the null hypothesis associated with that particular factor should be considered to be true (i.e., fully accepted).
  8. True

NOTE: Questions dealing with the 1st half of Chapter 13 appear in a separate online interactive quiz.


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