Quiz Over Chapter 11 of the 6th Edition


Tests on Three or More Means Using a One-Way ANOVA

Introduction
  1. What is the acronym for the phrase "analysis of variance"?
  2. AV
    AOV
    ANVA
    ANOVA
  3. What is the "statistical focus" of a one-way analysis of variance?
  4. Means
    Variances
    Correlations
  5. A one-way analysis of variance can be used to compare ___ or more groups.
  6. 2
    3
  7. ANOVA is the most frequently used inferential technique for comparing three or more means.
  8. True
    False
The Purpose of a One-Way ANOVA
  1. A one-way ANOVA's inference goes from the ____ means to the ____ means.
  2. sample; population
    population; sample
  3. If a one-way ANOVA involves 4 samples, each drawn from a different population, how many inferences will the researcher be making on the basis of the one-way ANOVA?
  4. 1
    2
    3
    4
    It depends on how large the samples are
The Distinction Between a One-Way ANOVA and Other Kinds of ANOVA
  1. These three terms are synonymous: "one-way ANOVA,"  "one-factor ANOVA," and "simple ANOVA."
  2. True
    False
  3. In discussing ANOVA studies, what term means the same thing as "independent variable?"
  4. Element
    Factor
    Independent samples
    Dependent variable
    Control variable
  5. A one-way ANOVA involves how many of these: (a) 3 independent variables (b) 2 dependent variables (c) correlated samples
  6. None of them
    1 of them
    2 of them
    All 3 of them
  7. In Excerpt 11.6, what was the dependent variable?
  8. GPS output modality
    Number of speeding violations
  9. If research participants perform a task 3 times (first with no distraction, then with a few distractions, and finally with many distractions), the independent variable would be _______ in nature.
  10. between-subjects
    within-subjects
The One-Way ANOVA's Null and Alternative Hypothesis
  1. A one-way ANOVA's null hypothesis stipulates that ____ of the population means are equal.
  2. at least two
    all
  3. How many means would be in the null hypothesis associated with Excerpt 11.6, and would those means be sample means or population means?
  4. 1; sample mean
    3; sample means
    1; population mean
    3; population means
  5. A one-way ANOVA's alternative hypothesis says that ____ of the population means are different.
  6. at least two
    all
Presentation of Results
  1. In ANOVA summary tables, what do the abbreviations "SS" stand for?
  2. Standard score
    Skewed sample
    Statistical sequence
    Sum of squares
  3. If an ANOVA summary table is set up for Excerpt 11.2, the "between group" df will equal __.
  4. 2
    3
    4
    120
    It's impossible to know based on the information provided
  5. If the df for "total" is equal to 29, how many research participants are involved in the analysis?
  6. 28
    29
    30
    31
    It's impossible to know based on the information provided
  7. What term other than "Error" is often used to label the middle row of a one-way ANOVA summary table?
  8. Between groups
    Within groups
    Total
  9. If the df for Error = 12 while the SS for Error = 30, the MS for Error would be equal to __.
  10. .40
    2.50
    42
    360
    It's impossible to know based on the information provided
  11. What letter is used to denote the calculated and critical values in an analysis of variance?
  12. C
    F
    M
    S
    T
  13. Based on the information in Excerpt 11.7, it is possible that the 3 samples were the same size.
  14. True
    False
  15. How many null hypotheses were tested in Excerpt 11.7?
  16. 2
    3
    4
    199
    202
  17. If each of the F-tests in a set of ANOVAs is not significant before the Bonferroni adjustment is applied, could any of those F-tests ends up being significant after the Bonferroni adjustment is applied?
  18. Yes
    No
Assumptions of a One-Way ANOVA
  1. The 4 underlying assumptions of a one-way ANOVA are: randomness, independence, normality, and _______.
  2. equal sample variances
    equal population variances
    equal sample sizes
    equal population sizes
  3. Using sumbols, show what the null hypothesis is when Levene's or Hartley's test is applied to data of a study involving 3 samples.
  4. Ho: m = 3
    Ho: m1 = m2 = m3
    Ho: s12 = s22 = s32
    Ho: s12 = s22 = s32
  5. When testing an assumption, the researcher usually hopes to ____ the assumption's Ho.
  6. reject
    fail to reject
  7. The one-way ANOVA F-test is robust to violations of the equal-variance assumption if the ns are equal.
  8. True
    False
  9. If the normality or equal-variance assumption is found to be untenable, what option(s) is/are available to the researcher?
  10. Eliminate outliers
    Transform the data
    Use a different test procedure
    All of the above
Statistical Significance Versus Practical Significance
  1. Most researchers _____ attempt to see if their results have practical significance once their ANOVA demonstrates that they are the "owners" of statistical significance.
  2. do
    don't
  3. What will a power analysis "tell" a researcher if the power analysis is done before any data are collected?
  4. How the null hypothesis should be set up
    How the alternative hypothesis should be set up
    What level of significance to use
    How large the samples should be
Tips for Deciphering/Critiquing Research Results Based on One-Way ANOVAs
  1. In a one-way ANOVA: each participant supplies _ score(s), and dftotal + _ = the total number of research participants.
  2. 1; 1
    1; 2
    2; 1
    2; 2
  3. If the F is significant in a one-way ANOVA comparing three groups, the researcher can legitimately infer (based on the sample evidence) that m1, m2, and m3 are all different.
  4. True
    False
  5. (T/F) If the F is not significant in a one-way ANOVA comparing three groups, the researcher can legitimately infer (based on the sample evidence) that m1, m2, and m3 are all the same.
  6. True
    False
Questions that are Supposed to be More Difficult
  1. If a one-way ANOVA compares 3 groups (with each n=10), and if SSerror = 54 while SStotal = 74, what will F be?
  2. 2
    5
    10
    27
    29
  3. If you convert each SD in Excerpt 11.1 into a variance and then compute the mean of those variances, the result will be the same (within rounding error) as which of the numbers in the ANOVA summary table contained in Excerpt 11.5?
  4. 2.054
    13.005
    26.710
    53.42
  5. Including the p-value, what's the maximum number of numbers that can appear in a one-way ANOVA summary table?
  6. 8
    9
    10
    11
  7. In Excerpt 11.6, what would the F-ratio's dfs have been if there had been 20 (rather than 10) people in of the comparison groups?
  8. 1, 18
    1, 38
    2, 47
    2, 57
    It is impossible to determine based on the available information
  9. If the researchers in Excerpt 11.17 had set their desired power equal to .90 (rather than .80), the needed sample size would have _______ (larger/smaller) than 35 per group.
  10. larger
    smaller
  11. In Excerpt 11.9, what happened to the size of each ANOVA's calculated value as the Bonferroni adjustment technique was applied?
  12. The calculated F value got larger
    The calculated F value got smaller
    The calculated F value neither increased nor decreased in size
  13. In Excerpt 11.9, what happened to the size of each ANOVA's critical value as the Bonferroni adjustment technique was applied?
  14. The critical F-value got larger
    The critical F-value got smaller
    The critical F-value neither increased nor decreased in size
  15. These two symbolic statements say the same thing: (1) Ha: sm2   0; (2) Ha: sm2 > 0
  16. True
    False

 

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