OUTLINE FOR CHAPTER 17 IN THE 6th EDITION

Inferences on Percentages, Proportions, and Frequencies

  1. Introduction
    1. A review of the techniques designed for quantitative variables
    2. Three ways to measure "group membership"
    3. Nominal variables
  2. The Sign Test
    1. The meaning of "+" and "-" signs
    2. The sign test's null hypothesis
    3. Three appropriate "settings"
  3. The Binomial Test
    1. Similarities between the binomial and sign tests
    2. The binomial test's null hypothesis
  4. Fisher's Exact Test
    1. The appropriate "setting"
    2. The null hypothesis in Fisher's Exact Test
    3. Discussing its outcome using "correlational" terms
  5. Chi-Square Tests: An Introduction
    1. Different chi-square tests
    2. Chi-square notation and language
  6. Three Main Types of Chi-Square Tests
    1. The one-sample chi-square test
    2. The independent-samples chi-square test
    3. Chi square as a correlational probe
      1. A test of "independence"
      2. Phi
      3. Contingency coefficient
      4. Cramer's V
  7. Issues Related to Chi Square
    1. Post hoc tests
    2. Small amounts of data
    3. Yate's correction for discontinuity
  8. McNemar's Chi-Square
    1. The appropriate "setting"
    2. Different labels
    3. The null hypothesis in McNemar's test
  9. The Cochran Q Test
    1. The appropriate "setting"
    2. The null hypothesis in the Cochran Q test
    3. Post hoc tests if Q is significant
  10. The Use of z-Tests When Dealing With Proportions
    1. Cases where a z-test produces identical results as some other test
    2. The use of a z-test as a "large scale approximation"
  11. A Few Final Thoughts
    1. Keep the null hypothesis in mind
    2. Inflated Type I error rates can occur
    3. Statistical signficance may not indicate practical significance

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Schuyler W. Huck
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