e-Articles (Chapter 6)

Here are some full-length research articles that illustrate the presentation of estimated standard errors, point estimates, and confidence intervals. To view any article, simply click on its title. (NOTE: No claim is made that these articles are perfect in all respects. By carefully reviewing them, you will hone your skills at being able both to decipher and to critique statistically-based research reports.)

Does the Mind Map Learning Strategy Facilitate Information Retrieval and Critical Thinking in Medical Students?

Presentation of values for the SEM (i.e., the estimated standard error of the mean) help readers remember that the sample means, computed for each of 2 groups on each of several dependent variables, would likely be different if based on a different sample. See Tables 2 and 3.

Comparison of the Incidence, Nature and Cause of Injuries Sustained on Dirt Field and Artificial turf Field by Amateur Football Players

Illustrates how 95% confidence intervals can help with the interpretation of sample statistics. In this study, CIs were built around the participants' mean age, height, and weight, their rates of injuries, and the ratio of such rates based on 2 different samples. See the 1st paragraph of the "Data analysis" portion of the "Methods" section, as well as Tables 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6.

Racial/Ethnic Differences in Perceived Access, Environmental Barriers to Use, and Use of Community Parks

In this research report, a comparison was made among 4 ethnic groups in terms of their use of public parks. The percentage of each group using parks for biking was shown as a bar in a bargraph. The same bargraph showed each group's usage for each of several other things (e.g., swimming, for picnicking). The researchers put an "error bar" into their graphic summary to indicate the 95% confidence interval for each ethnic sample's percent-usage of each possible park activity.

Additional Psychometric Data for the Spanish Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, and Psychometric Data for a Spanish Version of the Revised Dental Beliefs Survey

Illustrates how confidence intervals can be places around point estimates of reliability. See the 2nd and 3rd sentences of the "Results" portion of the "Abstract," the 2nd and 3rd paragraphs of the article's "Results" section, and the 1st paragraph of the article's "Discussion" section.

 If you have seen or authored a research report that you think might help others understand the concepts and techniques of estimation, please contact me (shuck@utk.edu) and provide a link to what you have found or written. If I post the link on this page of my website, I promise to give you appropriate credit for first seeing/writing the item you share.