e-Articles (Chapter 17)

Here are some full-length research articles that illustrate the use of statistical tests with percentages, proportions, and frequencies. To view any article, simply click on its title. (NOTE: No claim is made that these articles are perfect in all respects. By carefully reviewing them, you will hone your skills at being able both to decipher and to critique statistically-based research reports.)


Careful Construction of Hypothesis Tests: Comment on 'Lies, Damned Lies, and Statistics (in Geology)'

Illustrates the use of a one-sample chi-square test to see if earthquakes are distributed unevenly across the 7 days of the week. See Figure S1. This article is worth examining because the authors argue (correctly) that enormous amounts of data will cause just about any null hypothesis to be rejected.


Eating Patterns of Turkish Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Survey

In this study, boys' knowledge concerning nutritional eating was compared to that of girls via several independent-samples chi-square tests. See the last paragraph of the "Methods" section, as well as several portions of the "Results" section.


Obesity and Overweight Prevalence Among Adolescents With Disabilities

Illustrates the use of chi square to assess relationships. In this study, data were collected from youths with disabilities. The researchers used chi square to see if obesity (or simply being overweight) was related to sex, race/ethnicity, age, and type of disability (physical vs. cognitive).


Reduction of Missed Appointments at an Urban Primary Care Clinic: A Randomised Controlled Study

Illustrates the use of Fisher's Exact Test. See the paragraph in the "Results" section entitled "Effectivesness of the Intervention," as well as Table 2.


A Survey of Pharmacy Studentsí Experiences With Gambling

Illustrates a post hoc investigation following a significant result from a chi-square contingency table. See the last 3 sentences of the "Methods" section and the last 2 sentences in the next-to-last paragraph of the "Results" section.



If you have seen or authored a research report that you think might help others understand tests of frequencies, proportions, or percentages, please contact me (shuck@utk.edu) and provide a link to what you have found or written. If I post the link on this page of my website, I promise to give you appropriate credit for first seeing/writing the item you share.

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Schuyler W. Huck
All rights reserved.

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