e-Articles (Chapter 12)
Here are the titles of some full-length research articles that illustrate the use of planned and post hoc comparisons. To view any article, simply click on its title. (NOTE: No claim is made that these articles are perfect in all respects. By carefully reviewing them, you will hone your skills at being able both to decipher and to critique statistically-based research reports.)
Illustrates the use of Tukey's HSD test procedure to make pairwise comparisons after a one-way ANOVA's omnibus F-test was found to be significant. See the last paragraph of the "Methods" section,the final paragraph of the "Results" section, Figure 1, and Figure 2.
A one-way ANOVA comparing the mean empathy scores of 3 age groups of trainees in the health professions yielded a statistically significant result. In a post hoc investigation, the Scheffe test was used to make all possible pairwise comparisons of the 3 sample means on the empathy dependent variable. See the 1st 3 sentences of the 3rd paragraph of the article's "Results" section, as well as Table 3.
In this study, 6 age groups (9-14) were compared in terms of the mean number of steps taken per day, as measured by a pedometer. A one-way ANOVA yielded a significant F-ratio. In a post hoc investigation, the researchers then made 15 pairwise comparisons using Bonferroni-corrected t-tests. See the "Age effect" portion of the article's "Results" section, as well as Table 2.
Illustrates the use of the Scheffe procedure for making pairwise comparisons following a significant omnibus F-ratio from a one-way ANOVA. See the 2nd paragraph of Section 3 ("The Pattern of Housing Quality"), as well as Table 5.
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Schuyler W. Huck