
Index In this sample portion of the Index (as well as in the book's full Index), the numbers that immediately follow each term are page numbers while the those in parentheses refer to numbered journal article excerpts. (The number 2.7, for example, denotes the 7th excerpt in Chapter 2.) Each of the book's 674 excerpts was carefully selected by the author to illustrate either good or notsogood practice, to instruct via the words of others, or to show pictures of hardtounderstand concepts (e.g., a normalized distribution, and a threeway interaction). Collectively, they function to make this book "come alive" for the reader and to document that applied researchers use the terms, concepts, and techniques discussed in READING STATISTICS AND RESEARCH. B b. See Regression, slope Background, 3 (1.2) Bar graph, 2627 (2.7) Bartlett chisquare test, 311n. BehrensFisher ttest (3.11, 11.27) Beta error, 214 (8.10) Beta weights, 582 (19.1519.16, 19.24) Between groups 304 (12.8) Betweensubjects as a kind of factor, 328, 390392, 434 (12.3, 14.1114.12, 15.2) as a heading in ANOVA summary table, 507, 523 (17.2517.26) Betweenwithin ANOVA, 502 (17.4) Bias, 279, 419, 513, 527, 554555, 587 (21.11) Bimodal, 31, 3738 (2.14) Binomial test illustrations of, 610611 (20.220.3) null hypothesis of, 610 similarity to sign test, 610 Biserial correlation, 74 Bivariate correlation the correlation coefficient, 5961 (3.23.3) different kinds, 6676 scatter diagrams, 5759 (3.1) presented in a correlation matrix, 6266 (3.73.11) warnings about, 7683 Bivariate regression equations standardized, 573574 unstandardized, 573574 (19.619.11) inferential tests in, 576578 (19.919.11) intercept (i.e., constant) of, 574 line of best fit, 571 purpose and data, 569570 regression coefficient, 572, 574575 (19.7) slope, 574 (19.10) Bonferroni adjustment technique as a post hoc technique, 369371 (13.25) how it works, 223225 (8.218.22) logic behind, 221223, 304 with analysis of covariance, 557558 (18.26) with chi square, 633, 642643 (20.25, 20.36 with MannWhitney Utests, 664 (20.22) with mixed ANOVAs, 515516 (17.19) with oneway ANOVAs, 340341 (12.19) with tests of correlation coefficients, 267268 (8.228.23,10.20 with tests of means, 304 (11.1711.18) with threeway ANOVAs, 456 (15.17) with twoway ANOVAs, 422423 (14.37) with Wilcoxon post hoc probe, 668 Borderline significance, 241 (9.13) Boxandwhisker plot, 4243 (2.25, 2.402.41) C Calculated value, 180 (7.247.26) Canonical correlation, 66n. Cause and effect, 278279, 604 (10.34, 19.44) Cell meaning of, 384, 436 means, 395396, 399, 409411, 440 (14.1, 14.14, 14.2714.29, 15.6, 15.14, 16.21, 17.7, 17.10, 17.2317.24) getting subjects into, 388390 (14.914.10) Central tendency, measures of "average" used to denote "mean," (2.382.39, 3.32) relative position in different distributions, 3638 (2.20) three popular kinds, 3536 Chi square as adjunct to median test, 656658 (21.1521.16) as largesample version of other tests, 669670 (21.24, 21.26) contingency table, 616, 620, 626, 656658 (20.1720.18, 20.22, 20.24) as a correlational probe, 625629, 658 (9.32, 20.1920.24, 21.16) degrees of freedom, 630631 expected frequencies, 634635 (20.27) goodnessoffit test, 311n., 618 (12.20) notation and language, 614616 (20.720.12) Pearson's approximation to, 616 (20.12, 20.21) post hoc tests, 631634 (20.25) practical versus statistical significance, 643645 (20.3720.39) specific types independentsamples chisquare test comparing multiple groups on a dichotomous response variable, 621622 (7.25, 20.15) comparing multiple groups on a multicategory response variable, 624625 (20.18) comparing two groups on a dichotomous response variable, 619621, 7.27 (9.1, 9.33, 20.1420.15) comparing two groups on a multicategory response variable, 622624 (20.17) onesample chisquare test, 616618 test of independence, 625629, 658 (9.32, 20.1920.24, 21.16) theoretical distribution, 614 use with otherthannominal data, 614 use with related samples. See McNemar's chisquare test with Bonferroni correction, 633, 642643 (20.25, 20.36) Yates' correction for continuity, 636637 (20.3820.39) Circle graph, 28n. Clinical significance, 204n. Cluster sample, 121122 (5.8) Cochran's C test, 311n. Cochran's Q test, 638640 (20.32) Coefficient alpha, 9192 (4.1, 4.94.11, 4.16, 6.13) Coefficient of concordance, 9394 (4.12) Coefficient of determination, 7879, 576 (3.33, 8.2) Coefficient of equivalence, 89 Coefficient of stability, 87 Coefficient of variation, 47 (2.33) Cohen's kappa, 94 (4.13) Comparison, 358. See also Planned comparisons; Post hoc comparisons Complex comparison, 358. See also Nonpairwise comparison Computergenerated random numbers, 134 (5.31) Concomitant variable, 535n. Conclusion, 13 Concurrent validity. See Validity, different kinds Confidence band, 97 Confidence interval built around a reliability coefficient, 157 (6.15) construction of, 152153 (6.10) to estimate a population parameter, 149154, 287288, 644645 (11.111.2, 20.40) examples of, (6.76.9) the form they take, 150152 proper interpretation of, 153154 to evaluate an odds ratio, 598600 (19.3319.35) to test a null hypothesis, 218220, 273, 300301, 598599, 644645, (10.27, 11.13, 19.3419.35, 20.4020.41) versus a standard error, 154155, 220 (8.18) Confounded, 475, 513 Conservative Ftest, 478479, 489, 514 (16.13, 16.15, 16.26, 17.1417.15) multiple comparison test, 360 Construct validity, 104107 (4.1, 4.18, 4.254.28) Contingency coefficient, 628629 (20.23) Contingency table, 616, 620, 626, 656658 (20.1720.18, 20.22, 20.24) Continuous variable, 660661, 663 (3.27, 7.16) Contrast, 358. See also Planned comparisons; Post hoc comparisons Control in ANCOVA, 537 (18.818.9) in regression, 579, 584, 590592 (19.2519.26) Convenience sample, 124125 (5.125.13) Convergent validity, 104105 (4.244.25) Correction for attenuation, 280 (10.35) Correction for continuity, 636637 (20.2820.29) Correlated samples, 291294, 637 (11.5, 11.711.8, 11.14) Correlated ttest, 294296, 665 (7.20, 7.24, 11.10, 11.14, 11.1711.18, 11.21) Correlation and cause, 7778, 604 (3.313.32) descriptive labels, 5557, 6061 (3.43.6) different measures of, 7076 (3.203.30) as a relationship, 5557 Correlation coefficient in descriptive statistics, 5961 (3.23.3) in inferential statistics comparing two, 270273 (10.26, 10.37) confidence intervals around, 218219, 273274 (8.16, 10.27) test on, 255270, 576577 (4.2, 7.7, 7.10, 7.23, 8.19, 9.109.11, 9.18, 9.299.30, 10.910.19, 19.9) zero order, 66n. Correlation matrix, 6266, 263264 (3.73.11, 9.19, 10.15) Covariate as a variable in ANCOVA, 535, 541543 (18.2, 18.418.6, 18.10, 18.16, 18.29) as a row in a summary table, 545546 (18.14) limitations of (in ANCOVA with intact groups), 555556 in regression, 579, 590 Cramer's V, 76, 629 (3.293.30, 20.24) Criterion variable, 567n. (1.8) Critical value, 182185 (7.287.31, 10.7) Cronbach's alpha, 9192 (4.1, 4.94.11, 4.16, 6.13, 19.6) Counterbalanced, 88n., 475476, 488 (16.11, 16.19) Curvilinear, 8081, 601602 (3.35, 18.21, 19.38)

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