Index

In this sample portion of the Index (as well as in the book's full Index), the numbers that immediately follow each term are page numbers while the those in parentheses refer to numbered journal article excerpts. (The number 2.7, for example, denotes the 7th excerpt in Chapter 2.) Each of the book's 674 excerpts was carefully selected by the author to illustrate either good or not-so-good practice, to instruct via the words of others, or to show pictures of hard-to-understand concepts (e.g., a normalized distribution, and a three-way interaction). Collectively, they function to make this book "come alive" for the reader and to document that applied researchers use the terms, concepts, and techniques discussed in READING STATISTICS AND RESEARCH.

B

b. See Regression, slope

Background, 3 (1.2)

Bar graph, 26-27 (2.7)

Bartlett chi-square test, 311n.

Behrens-Fisher t-test (3.11, 11.27)

Beta error, 214 (8.10)

Beta weights, 582 (19.15-19.16, 19.24)

Between groups 304 (12.8)

Between-subjects

as a kind of factor, 328, 390-392, 434 (12.3, 14.11-14.12, 15.2)

as a heading in ANOVA summary table, 507, 523 (17.25-17.26)

Between-within ANOVA, 502 (17.4)

Bias, 279, 419, 513, 527, 554-555, 587 (21.11)

Bimodal, 31, 37-38 (2.14)

Binomial test

illustrations of, 610-611 (20.2-20.3)

null hypothesis of, 610

similarity to sign test, 610

Biserial correlation, 74

Bivariate correlation

the correlation coefficient, 59-61 (3.2-3.3)

different kinds, 66-76

scatter diagrams, 57-59 (3.1)

presented in a correlation matrix, 62-66 (3.7-3.11)

warnings about, 76-83

Bivariate regression

equations

   standardized, 573-574

   unstandardized, 573-574 (19.6-19.11)

inferential tests in, 576-578 (19.9-19.11)

intercept (i.e., constant) of, 574

line of best fit, 571

purpose and data, 569-570

regression coefficient, 572, 574-575 (19.7)

slope, 574 (19.10)

Bonferroni adjustment technique

as a post hoc technique, 369-371 (13.25)

how it works, 223-225 (8.21-8.22)

logic behind, 221-223, 304

with analysis of covariance, 557-558 (18.26)

with chi square, 633, 642-643 (20.25, 20.36

with Mann-Whitney U-tests, 664 (20.22)

with mixed ANOVAs, 515-516 (17.19)

with one-way ANOVAs, 340-341 (12.19)

with tests of correlation coefficients, 267-268 (8.22-8.23,10.20

with tests of means, 304 (11.17-11.18)

with three-way ANOVAs, 456 (15.17)

with two-way ANOVAs, 422-423 (14.37)

with Wilcoxon post hoc probe, 668

Borderline significance, 241 (9.13)

Box-and-whisker plot, 42-43 (2.25, 2.40-2.41)

C

Calculated value, 180 (7.24-7.26)

Canonical correlation, 66n.

Cause and effect, 278-279, 604 (10.34, 19.44)

Cell

meaning of, 384, 436

means, 395-396, 399, 409-411, 440 (14.1, 14.14, 14.27-14.29, 15.6, 15.14, 16.21, 17.7, 17.10, 17.23-17.24)

getting subjects into, 388-390 (14.9-14.10)

Central tendency, measures of

"average" used to denote "mean," (2.38-2.39, 3.32)

relative position in different distributions, 36-38 (2.20)

three popular kinds, 35-36

Chi square

as adjunct to median test, 656-658 (21.15-21.16)

as large-sample version of other tests, 669-670 (21.24, 21.26)

contingency table, 616, 620, 626, 656-658 (20.17-20.18, 20.22, 20.24)

as a correlational probe, 625-629, 658 (9.32, 20.19-20.24, 21.16)

degrees of freedom, 630-631

expected frequencies, 634-635 (20.27)

goodness-of-fit test, 311n., 618 (12.20)

notation and language, 614-616 (20.7-20.12)

Pearson's approximation to, 616 (20.12, 20.21)

post hoc tests, 631-634 (20.25)

practical versus statistical significance, 643-645 (20.37-20.39)

specific types

   independent-samples chi-square test

      comparing multiple groups on a dichotomous response variable, 621-622 (7.25, 20.15)

      comparing multiple groups on a multicategory response variable, 624-625 (20.18)

      comparing two groups on a dichotomous response variable, 619-621, 7.27 (9.1, 9.33, 20.14-20.15)

      comparing two groups on a multicategory response variable, 622-624 (20.17)

   one-sample chi-square test, 616-618

   test of independence, 625-629, 658 (9.32, 20.19-20.24, 21.16)

theoretical distribution, 614

use with other-than-nominal data, 614

use with related samples. See McNemar's chi-square test

with Bonferroni correction, 633, 642-643 (20.25, 20.36)

Yates' correction for continuity, 636-637 (20.38-20.39)

Circle graph, 28n.

Clinical significance, 204n.

Cluster sample, 121-122 (5.8)

Cochran's C test, 311n.

Cochran's Q test, 638-640 (20.32)

Coefficient alpha, 91-92 (4.1, 4.9-4.11, 4.16, 6.13)

Coefficient of concordance, 93-94 (4.12)

Coefficient of determination, 78-79, 576 (3.33, 8.2)

Coefficient of equivalence, 89

Coefficient of stability, 87

Coefficient of variation, 47 (2.33)

Cohen's kappa, 94 (4.13)

Comparison, 358. See also Planned comparisons; Post hoc comparisons

Complex comparison, 358. See also Nonpairwise comparison

Computer-generated random numbers, 134 (5.31)

Concomitant variable, 535n.

Conclusion, 13

Concurrent validity. See Validity, different kinds

Confidence band, 97

Confidence interval

built around a reliability coefficient, 157 (6.15)

construction of, 152-153 (6.10)

to estimate a population parameter, 149-154, 287-288, 644-645 (11.1-11.2, 20.40)

examples of, (6.7-6.9)

the form they take, 150-152

proper interpretation of, 153-154

to evaluate an odds ratio, 598-600 (19.33-19.35)

to test a null hypothesis, 218-220, 273, 300-301, 598-599, 644-645, (10.27, 11.13, 19.34-19.35, 20.40-20.41)

versus a standard error, 154-155, 220 (8.18)

Confounded, 475, 513

Conservative

F-test, 478-479, 489, 514 (16.13, 16.15, 16.26, 17.14-17.15)

multiple comparison test, 360

Construct validity, 104-107 (4.1, 4.18, 4.25-4.28)

Contingency coefficient, 628-629 (20.23)

Contingency table, 616, 620, 626, 656-658 (20.17-20.18, 20.22, 20.24)

Continuous variable, 660-661, 663 (3.27, 7.16)

Contrast, 358. See also Planned comparisons; Post hoc comparisons

Control

in ANCOVA, 537 (18.8-18.9)

in regression, 579, 584, 590-592 (19.25-19.26)

Convenience sample, 124-125 (5.12-5.13)

Convergent validity, 104-105 (4.24-4.25)

Correction for attenuation, 280 (10.35)

Correction for continuity, 636-637 (20.28-20.29)

Correlated samples, 291-294, 637 (11.5, 11.7-11.8, 11.14)

Correlated t-test, 294-296, 665 (7.20, 7.24, 11.10, 11.14, 11.17-11.18, 11.21)

Correlation

and cause, 77-78, 604 (3.31-3.32)

descriptive labels, 55-57, 60-61 (3.4-3.6)

different measures of, 70-76 (3.20-3.30)

as a relationship, 55-57

Correlation coefficient

in descriptive statistics, 59-61 (3.2-3.3)

in inferential statistics

comparing two, 270-273 (10.26, 10.37)

confidence intervals around, 218-219, 273-274 (8.16, 10.27)

test on, 255-270, 576-577 (4.2, 7.7, 7.10, 7.23, 8.19, 9.10-9.11, 9.18, 9.29-9.30, 10.9-10.19, 19.9)

zero order, 66n.

Correlation matrix, 62-66, 263-264 (3.7-3.11, 9.19, 10.15)

Covariate

as a variable in ANCOVA, 535, 541-543 (18.2, 18.4-18.6, 18.10, 18.16, 18.29)

as a row in a summary table, 545-546 (18.14)

limitations of (in ANCOVA with intact groups), 555-556

in regression, 579, 590

Cramer's V, 76, 629 (3.29-3.30, 20.24)

Criterion variable, 567n. (1.8)

Critical value, 182-185 (7.28-7.31, 10.7)

Cronbach's alpha, 91-92 (4.1, 4.9-4.11, 4.16, 6.13, 19.6)

Counterbalanced, 88n., 475-476, 488 (16.11, 16.19)

Curvilinear, 80-81, 601-602 (3.35, 18.21, 19.38)

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Schuyler W. Huck
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